Previous study has shown that beliefs based on objective facts and statistics may be stable over time, but new research published in the journal Psychological Science shows that attitudes based on feelings and emotions can also be stable. In three studies, researchers found that people often believe erroneous ideas about others simply because they feel bad about themselves or want to avoid being hurt emotionally.
In one experiment, participants were asked to read a brief description of someone they knew nothing about and then rate them on either emotional stability or rational thinking. They were then shown pictures of people who differed from the original description in either emotionality or rationality and told which category each person fell into. Even though everyone was described as equal opportunities offenders, participants tended to rate those in the emotional stability category as more guilty than those in the rational thinking category.
Another experiment used the same procedure but with different categories: youth who engaged in aggressive behavior, youth who engaged in non-aggressive behavior, and adults who had been convicted of a crime. Again, participants rated those in the aggressive behavior category as more likely to commit further crimes than those in the non-aggressive behavior category, even though there was no difference between the two groups in terms of their likelihood of being convicted of a new offense. Participants also tended to rate adults who had committed violent acts as more emotionally unstable than those who had not.
Abstract There are five research investigating the link between positive and negative affect. Positive and negative impacts tend to be independent of how much individuals feel in their lives over longer time periods. However, when examined in detail, there are some indications that positive affects may have specific effects on reducing negative affects.
In consumer research, three techniques of measuring emotions are found: self-reported, autonomic measurements, and brain imaging. The most essential approaches are considered to be the Verbal Self Report and fMRI. Other methods such as facial electromyography and skin conductance response are also used.
Verbal self-report measures consumers' emotional responses to products or services by having them describe how they feel about various aspects of their lives. Questions typically ask people to think back over time when they experienced certain feelings related to their current interest area (e.g., family vacation). They are then asked to rate the intensity of these feelings on a scale from 1 ("not at all") to 5 ("very much"). The advantage of this method is that it allows researchers to understand what aspects of a product or service cause people to experience certain emotions. The major limitation of this approach is that it is difficult to separate feelings caused by one event from those caused by another due to the retrospective nature of the design. For example, if someone reports feeling sad after reading an article about war casualties, it is not clear whether this reaction is due to reading about war or because they ate too much chocolate cake at dinner last night.
Autonomic measurement techniques involve monitoring physiological changes associated with emotions.
Emotional Appraisal Theory According to appraisal theory, our interpretation of a circumstance results in an emotional reaction based on that interpretation. The more we think about a situation, the more emotion it will generate. If we believe a threat is serious, for example, we will feel fear. If we believe the threat is not real, then it has no effect on us.
In addition to thinking about a situation, we also need to consider our expectations regarding what will happen. If we expect something bad to happen and it does, we will feel fear. If we expect something good to happen and it does, we will feel joy. Without these expectations, which are called "predictions", there would be no way to know how you're feeling about a situation.
Our predictions are based on past experiences. If something bad has happened before, we will expect it to happen again. This means that if we perceive someone as dangerous, we will react with fear because this person's actions are a reminder of what happened first time around.
If something good happens, we will enjoy it because it is surprising and different from what we expected. Fear and joy are two of the most basic emotions and they are felt by everyone regardless of culture or background.
People are often ignorant of how their sentiments are formed by their culture, according to social constructivists, because cultural concepts and practices are all-encompassing. Emotions can so feel automatic, natural, physiological, and innate while yet being mostly culturally molded. Culture influences our emotions in many ways, such as through what values we hold near and dear, which people we associate with, what stories we tell ourselves about why we feel certain ways, and more.
Culture also shapes our emotions through its rituals and ceremonies. For example, social scientists have shown that people feel less lonely when they participate in certain rituals, such as visiting family over the holidays or going to church on Sunday. These experiences give them a sense of connection and community, which reduces their feelings of isolation.
Rituals and ceremonies are important tools for shaping emotions. People use them to express themselves emotionally, such as through song at concerts or at karaoke bars, dance parties, or nightclubs. They can also use these tools to communicate emotion to others, such as when someone sings loudly or passionately at a concert, or when someone wears tight clothes to show off their muscles.
Culture also shapes our emotions through its cuisine. When people eat foods that are familiar and comfortable, they tend to feel happier. This is because eating food that you know and love gives you pleasure and satisfaction.
In psychology, an attitude is a collection of feelings, beliefs, and actions toward a certain object, person, thing, or event. Attitudes are frequently the product of experience or upbringing, and they may have a significant impact on behavior. While attitudes endure, they may also shift. The term "attitude" may also be used to describe a particular feeling or judgment that someone has about something.
Attitudes can be either positive or negative. A positive attitude means that you think that you will succeed; a negative attitude means that you think that you will fail. Positive attitudes are important because they can help people do better at school, work, and sports. Negative attitudes can be bad because they can prevent people from trying new things or taking risks.
People with positive attitudes tend to make more money, achieve more goals, and have closer relationships than people with negative attitudes. It is not that those with positive attitudes are happy all the time or that everyone around them agrees with their views; rather, they have a general feeling of optimism which helps them move forward in life.
People with negative attitudes often come from families where success is not appreciated or rewards are not given for good work. They may also have experienced failure or loss, which can create a pessimistic outlook on life.
Negative attitudes can affect how well people do at school or work.