Secondary Circular Reactions (four to eight months) During this substage, the kid becomes increasingly focused on the outside world and begins to purposefully repeat an activity in order to elicit a reaction from the environment. This is when play habits are first established.
Tertiary Circular Reactions (nine to 12 months) By this stage, the child has learned how to get what they want by making demands or requesting items from their caregivers. Play during this period is aimed at testing the limits of perception and dexterity with activities such as catch, tug-of-war, and jump rope. Kids will often engage in pretend play during this stage too.
Quaternary Circular Reactions (12 months or more) Finally, once children reach their second year they start using objects as tools to achieve goals. This leads to the formation of conceptual play where kids use materials like trucks, dolls, and blocks to create stories or models that help them understand how things work together to make life easier.
Overall, childhood play is designed to provide children with experiences that will help them learn about themselves and their world. Through playing kids develop physical skills, practice social interactions, and gain knowledge about their surroundings all while having fun.
Simple reflexes, primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, reaction coordination, tertiary circular reactions, and early symbolic reasoning are all substages of the sensorimotor stage of development.
The sensorimotor stage is the first major stage of psychological development and begins at about 8 weeks into pregnancy and ends around age 2. During this time, infants develop basic skills such as moving their limbs and eyes, sensing their environment, and reacting to it. They also begin to understand that they are part of a larger world and learn to seek out other people's attention. These are all examples of cognitive functions that help an infant prepare for future developments in psychology.
Children go through several stages during their development of the sensorimotor system. First, there is a period in which infants explore their physical environment by moving limbs and making sounds. This is called pre-operational behavior and lasts from about 8 weeks old until about 24 months. During this time, they also experiment with objects in their environment by touching them with their hands and feeling them with their feet. At about 24 months, children start to use tools to manipulate objects; for example, by holding chopsticks or a spoon. Around age 3, they begin to play games with others and use their imagination to create stories and models with blocks or dolls.
In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the sensorimotor stage is the first of four phases. The fundamental development throughout the sensorimotor stage is the realization that things exist and events occur in the world independently of one's own actions ('the object idea,' also known as 'object permanence'). During this phase, infants from 12 to 18 months old can be expected to:
- Recognize their own name being called out by an adult (Agnosia). This shows that they understand that someone is trying to communicate with them.
- Turn away from a distracting noise or light signalized as not wanted (Attention). This means that they have learned that some events are important and others are not.
- Copy objects such as toys that they see being done something new (Imitation). They have realized that what happens to one thing happens to another thing.
- Sit on a chair when invited to do so (Routinization). This shows that they understand that there are certain times when it is appropriate to sit and others when it is not (see discussion on schemas below).
The primary function of the sensorimotor stage is the development of autonomous behavior. This means that infants need to learn how to act without any external prompting (e.g., being told what to do).
Emergent behavior is the behavior of a system that does not depend on its individual parts but on their relationships to one another. Thus, emergent behavior cannot be predicted by examination of a system's individual parts. Rather, it must be studied through analysis of the system as a whole.
In other words, emergent behavior is behavior that arises from the interactions of elements in a system. Because this type of behavior cannot be explained by looking at the parts themselves, it has been called "non-reducible" or "indivisible." Emergence can be seen in certain complex systems, such as biological organisms, social groups, and physical materials, and has been documented in experiments with simple mechanical systems (such as colliding billiard balls) and computer programs (such as evolutionary algorithms).
Such a reaction is eventually created by training in conjunction with precise, recurrent external stimuli. For instance, in Russian researcher Ivan Pavlov's experiment, a dog salivates at the ringing of a bell if, over time, each feeding is preceded by the bell-ringing stimulus. This is called "conditioned reflex behavior."
In humans, similar conditioning processes can create any number of habits that become automatic responses to certain situations. For example, someone who regularly eats when stressed out may be using this behavior as a form of conditioning; they are learning that eating gives them relief from anxiety and therefore decide to eat whenever they feel anxious.
Habits can also be broken down with new information and options presented in a deliberate manner. In some cases, changing an ingrained habit might even be as simple as "outfitting yourself with anti-skid shoes" to "risk losing weight by eating less meat". There are many different ways to approach breaking a habit, but none that I'm aware of that would actually work as treatment for one.
So, while you may think that habits are permanent parts of your personality that cannot be changed, this is not true. Everyone can learn new behaviors and break old ones if they are motivated enough. The key is to understand how habits work so that you can identify them when they come up in your daily life and find ways to overcome them.
One explanation is extinction. Extinction is a term used in psychology to describe the progressive weakening of a conditioned response, which ends in the behavior reducing or vanishing. To put it another way, the conditioned behavior finally comes to an end. The opposite of extinction is conditioning. When a stimulus that previously activated one response becomes associated with another stimulus, that new association will cause the second response whenever the first is presented.
Extinction can happen through several different processes. One is spontaneous recovery, which means that even though the environment still triggers your fear response, over time this response begins to weaken until one day it disappears completely. This happens because your brain wants to keep you safe by automatically reducing the strength of your fear response.
Another process is called explicit extinction. With this method, someone who has learned about your fear response explains to you how they can help reduce its intensity or eliminate it entirely. For example, your therapist might show you video clips of people walking down stairs without falling and tell you that you can learn from these examples to reduce your fear of heights.
Implicit extinction works on its own without anyone's help. It's based on a principle called "super-stimulation", which means giving your brain more than one thing to work on at once to prevent it from dwelling on any one topic for too long.