Encoded signals are transmitted via a channel, also known as a sensory route, to the receiver for decoding. While communication can be transmitted and received through any sensory channel (sight, smell, touch, taste, or sound), the majority of communication takes place through visual (sight) and/or auditory (sound) channels. Other channels include tactile (touch) and olfactory (smell). The term "channel" refers to any physical pathway, including a wired connection such as a telephone line, or an electromagnetic pathway such as radio waves.
A message is sent from a sender to a recipient. When you send someone a text message, email, social media post, or other electronic message, you are using a form of communication called "cognitive radio". Cognitive radio is a type of communication in which both the sender and the receiver have some level of intelligence about how to communicate with one another. They do this by making use of all available channels, not just those that are prescribed or regulated by authority figures. For example, when you are sending an email, the email software uses your internet connection but it does not have to go through a phone company's network to get to its destination. Instead, it can use various types of wireless connections, such as Wi-Fi, 4G/LTE, or 3G/2G cellular networks. If there is a strong enough signal, it will reach its destination without having to go through the public switch telephone network (PSTN).
There are two persons involved in communication: a sender and a receiver. The sender creates a message and encodes it into words or symbols throughout this phase. The encoded communication is sent to the receiver via a channel or medium. The receiver detects the incoming message and decodes it in order to comprehend the message. Communication can be as simple as one person talking to another or it can involve complex computers systems.
In modern technology, messages are typically transmitted using electrical signals on conductors such as wires. However, messages have also been transmitted using smoke signals, flags, drums, bells, and even face-to-face communication. Modern methods include telephones, radio transmissions, and computer networks.
In general, there are three ways that information can be transmitted from one place to another: physically, electronically, and chemically.
Physically means traveling from place to place by some form of conveyance, such as walking or driving. Physical transmission uses objects like cables, fiber-optic lines, electrical circuits, and light beams to transmit information between different locations.
Electronically means using electronic devices to transfer information between different locations. Electronic transmission uses signals carried by electromagnetic waves to transmit information between electronic devices. These signals can either be directly applied to terminals or carried by carriers such as wires or fibers. In addition, electrons are used instead of photons for transmitting information over long distances. On the other hand, electronic transmission is slower than physical transmission.
The act of converting communication into thoughts is known as decoding. Decoding involves three steps: extraction, interpretation, and application.
Extraction refers to taking a signal out of its original form. This can be done by recording devices such as microphones or radios. With modern technology, extraction isn't usually an issue; however, older technologies had limitations on what could be extracted from them. For example, magnetic tapes could only record sounds for so long before they wore out. Optical discs have more longevity because they don't have a fixed length. However, these days most recordings are made using digital technology which has no limits on how many times something can be recorded onto it.
Interpretation is understanding what the encoded signal means. This requires knowledge of the encoding method used as well as the context in which the signal is being decoded. For example, if the signal was encoded using Morse code, one would need to know what language the dots and dashes represent to properly decode it.
Application is using the information found during decoding to accomplish some purpose. This could be displaying text on a screen or sending data over a network. Applications vary depending on the type of device being used to decode the signal.