Emotions are classified into two types: main emotions (such as joy, sorrow, anger, fear, contempt, and surprise) and secondary emotions (which generate a mental image that corresponds to a memory or fundamental emotion). Secondary emotions can be further divided into three categories: spontaneous, reflexive, and conscious.
Spontaneous emotions are natural responses to events that we perceive as important for our survival. They include anger when someone hurts us, fear when we see something dangerous, and love when we find happiness in another person's presence. Spontaneous emotions are driven by biological needs that have been meted out through evolution. It is unlikely that we will ever understand all the factors that drive a human being to feel certain emotions, but we know that pain causes anger, danger causes fear, and affection causes love. Spontaneous emotions tend to be universal because they serve an essential function for ensuring our survival.
Reflexive emotions are those that are triggered by stimuli that we perceive as relevant but not vital for our survival. These include hatred when someone insults us, jealousy when we see someone else enjoying himself/herself, and pride when we succeed at something difficult. Reflexive emotions are driven by psychological needs that have no connection with physical harm or loss.
According to a widely accepted theory, initially stated by Dr. Paul Ekman, there are six fundamental emotions that are globally recognized and easily comprehended through unique facial expressions, regardless of language or country. These are: joy, sorrow, fear, rage, surprise, and disgust. Other emotions may be felt but they require you to be aware of them; for example, embarrassment requires you to be conscious that you're feeling embarrassed. The only way to know for sure if you're feeling another emotion is if it manifests in your face.
The ability to recognize other people's emotions is called emotional intelligence (EI). People who have high EI can read others' feelings and understand their motivations. They tend to get good jobs and make good friends. On the other hand, people with low EI often struggle to figure out what others are thinking and feel misunderstood by others and themselves. They may also have problems with depression and anxiety.
Emotional intelligence is not the same as IQ. Your IQ measures your intelligence in general, while emotional intelligence focuses on how you deal with your emotions. Someone with high IQ but low emotional intelligence would still feel most emotions but wouldn't understand why others don't feel like him/herself. Emotional intelligence cannot be measured using any test; you either have it or you don't. It is estimated that between 30 and 80 percent of people worldwide score below average on emotional intelligence tests.
Emotions are tangible and instinctual, causing immediate physiological responses to threats, rewards, and everything in between. Pupil dilation (eye tracking), skin conductance (EDA/GSR), brain activity (EEG, fMRI), heart rate (ECG), and facial expressions may all be used to objectively quantify bodily reactions. Self-report methods include asking participants to describe their feelings using words, drawings, or simple checklists.
Research on emotion has historically used self-report measures because objective measurements are difficult if not impossible to obtain in natural settings. Recent advances in technology have made it possible to measure other indicators of emotional response with greater accuracy. Scientists use these secondary measures when primary reports from participants are not sufficient to draw conclusions about an experiment's results.
In addition to questionnaires, researchers often use behavioral tasks to measure how people respond emotionally to specific situations or objects. For example, someone who views unpleasant images in the laboratory will show changes in his or her blood pressure as well as facial expressions such as sweating and blanching. These responses could not be observed otherwise because they occur inside a shielded room where sound cannot be heard and cameras cannot see clear images.
In conclusion, emotions are subjective experiences that cannot be seen or measured with physical instruments but they can be inferred from certain behaviors and physiological changes. Psychological tests are useful tools for scientists to gain insight into how people think and feel about things such as products, services, or ideas.
Happiness, anger, and contempt were the most easily identified emotions from the entire face, followed by fear, while surprise, neutral feeling, and melancholy were more difficult to distinguish. The study also found that people tended to identify emotions based on how they are portrayed in media, which may not be realistic or accurate.
In real life, it is hard to tell just by looking at someone's face whether they are happy, angry, or something else. Scientists have used this knowledge to build computers that can look at pictures of people's faces and guess what they are feeling. These computer programs are called "emotion recognition systems."
There are two main types of emotion recognition systems: rule-based and neural network models. Rule-based systems use definitions for certain facial features or combinations of features (such as the distance between your eyes or the shape of your mouth) that are associated with different emotions. They check every picture they receive against these rules to see which ones match best. Neural network models use information about previous experiences with humans or animals to learn what different emotions mean. They then store this information in pieces of hardware called "neurons," which can later be asked what type of emotion was seen in a photo.
People have tried using emotion recognition systems to help diagnose mental disorders.
Emotions are concerned with the physical; what you do and how you act. A emotion can be described as a mental attitude. It is a thought that has been swayed by emotion. A feeling allows a person to communicate his emotions through expression. An attitude is a more general term that describes a way of thinking or behaving that persists over time.
Sentiments are smaller ideas that make up an attitude. They include such notions as "I appreciate..." or "I dislike... very much." A sentiment is something that can be felt rather than seen. For example, when someone says he or she "appreciates" another's help, this is a sentiment because it does not involve the body, only the mind. Sentiments can be positive or negative. For example, if I say I appreciate my friend's help, this is a positive sentiment because we are talking about something good.
Emotions are usually accompanied by certain physical changes in the body. These include changes in the size of the pupils, showing blood flow to certain parts of the body; increased heart rate, breathing difficulty, and sweat production are all signs of an emotion.
The word "emotion" comes from a Latin word meaning "to move," while the word "sentiment" comes from a French word meaning "a moving of the soul."