Many facets of human behavior are explained by classical conditioning. It is crucial in eliciting emotional reactions, advertising, addiction, psychotherapy, hunger, and so forth. Classical conditioning is also used in schools, post-traumatic conditions, and connecting something with the past. This learning method is even used by computers to teach navigation skills or control programs.
Classical conditioning can be used to treat psychological disorders such as anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and depression. The therapist uses neutral objects or situations that are similar to those in the patient's environment but that would not normally trigger an emotional response. Then the therapist pairs these objects or situations with unpleasant events (such as a loud noise or touch). Over time, the patient will begin to associate the neutral object or situation with the unpleasant event, which then becomes associated with calmness or relaxation.
The patient is asked to respond to any neutral stimulus (sound, image, etc.) with which he/she has been previously paired with an unpleasant experience. For example, if a patient was given a glass of milk after being touched on the shoulder, he/she would be told to drink any amount of milk after hearing any sound/image cue that was previously connected with being hurt by another person. Conditioning therapy works because over time, people learn more about what causes them to feel good and what causes them to feel bad.
Classical conditioning is one of these unconscious learning processes and is the simplest way for people to learn. The technique of pairing an automatic, conditioned response with certain stimuli is known as classical conditioning. Classical conditioning can be used to study and model many types of psychological phenomena, including fear, anxiety, and memory. It can also be used in the training process called operant conditioning.
How does classical conditioning work? Think about how you react when you see someone walk by your car with their trunk open. You probably stop and look inside to make sure there's nothing wrong with their vehicle. This is a conditioned response - a natural reaction that has been associated with seeing something open and unsafe so you stop and check things out.
You've probably heard the expression "seeing is believing." This means that if you want someone to believe something false, show them a visual representation of that thing. If they see it themselves, they'll believe it too. This is why politicians use pictures of dead children or victims of violence when they want to get votes or publicity. It works because we all have a feeling about things that we perceive with our own eyes.
Classical conditioning is currently recognized as an essential behavioral phenomena as well as a strategy for studying simple associative learning. Similar to Pavlovian conditioning A conditioned response that opposes, rather than being the same as, the unconditioned response in classical conditioning. For example, when you see a dog walk by, your body responds with fear or excitement. If this happens often enough, it can change the structure of your brain and cause you to growl at dogs instead of running away from them. Conditioning also plays a role in more complex behaviors, such as addiction and depression. It's believed that these disorders result from a maladaptive form of learning that causes the patient to seek out stimuli that produce a feeling of happiness in order to retain those feelings even after they are no longer needed.
People use classical conditioning every day in their studies. If someone gives you a book to read and marks your test by putting a + or - next to your name, this is classical conditioning at work. The person is teaching you about your own behavior by pairing your reading time with good things like grades or negative things like failure exams.
In psychology, classical conditioning is used to study many different types of learning including: attention, perception, memory, emotion, motivation, behavior, and ability (such as skill development).
Classical conditioning has been used successfully to change or modify habits such as substance misuse and smoking. Aversion treatment, systematic desensitization, and flooding are among therapies linked with classical conditioning.
In aversion treatment, an individual is exposed to the object of his or her fear in a controlled setting, such as in a therapy room. The therapist uses verbal descriptions and physical demonstrations of negative consequences that would likely occur if anxiety were not reduced. The goal is to create a new response pattern by which exposure to the feared object reduces or eliminates the anxiety associated with it.
Systematic desensitization is a type of treatment that begins with a mild form of exposure and builds up to more intense exposures over time. In this process, someone who is afraid of spiders will be gradually exposed to smaller and smaller amounts of spider webbing until he or she is able to handle being near spiders without becoming anxious. This form of treatment is often used to help people overcome fears that they may not have been able to overcome otherwise.
Flooding involves repeated exposure to the feared object or situation plus immediate relief from anxiety once it is gone. For example, a person who is afraid of water might be given a chance to feel calm after having a single sip of coffee.
In classical conditioning, an automatic reaction is associated with a stimulus, whereas operant conditioning includes pairing a purposeful activity with a consequence. A teacher could use operant conditioning in the classroom by rewarding positive conduct with tokens. The student can then learn to associate school work with rewards.
Classical conditioning is used in many forms of therapy including behavior modification and social skills training. A therapist might use it to teach a patient how to control his or her anger by using aversive stimuli as a substitute for actually hitting someone. Operant conditioning is also commonly used in therapy settings to help a person learn proper behavior by providing immediate feedback about its consequences.
Classical conditioning is also used by scientists to study learning processes. They do this by creating a connection between a neutral object or situation and something negative like pain or removing part of the skin. Then, they watch what happens afterward when people are exposed to either object or scene. This allows them to determine if and how people react instinctively to these objects/situations without knowing they are there.
Scientists have also used operant conditioning to study learning processes. In this case, they provide food or water to a animal as a reward for certain behaviors (such as pressing a button) and see which ones get repeated over time.