Intellectual impairment (ID) and language problems are early childhood neurodevelopmental issues. Because both ID and language abnormalities are highly connected with problematic behaviors and mental illnesses, child psychiatrists are likely to encounter children with ID and language issues. However other disorders may also affect learning and behavior, so a diagnosis of ID or language disorder does not necessarily indicate that another problem is not going on as well.
ID is defined by significant limitations in two or more areas of ability such as understanding what people are saying to you, using words to express yourself, or handling new situations. These difficulties must have been present before age 12. While some people with ID develop skills at a normal rate, others do not. Some individuals with ID learn specific skills later but never reach the level expected for their age group. People with ID may have many problems with communication, including: difficulty expressing themselves- either verbally or in writing- trouble understanding what others are saying to them, poor social skills, frequent misunderstandings.
Language disorders are problems with the way someone uses language within the context of communication. Language problems can be due to a physical cause (such as brain damage), a developmental cause (such as autism), or an emotional cause (such as anxiety). Children with language problems may have difficulty forming adequate sentences or using correct grammar. They may also have problems with vocabulary or find certain topics difficult to discuss.
Intellectual disability (or ID) is a term used to describe when a person's cognitive functioning and skills, such as communication, social, and self-care skills, are limited. Because of these restrictions, a kid may develop and learn more slowly or differently than a typically developing youngster. Intellectual disabilities can be mild, moderate, severe, or profound.
People with intellectual disabilities may have difficulties with everyday tasks that most people take for granted, such as making friends, doing chores, preparing meals, keeping their home clean, paying bills, and managing money. They may require help from others to complete some tasks.
In addition to having limitations in understanding and executing instructions, kids with intellectual disabilities may also have problems with reasoning, communicating thoughts and feelings, and learning new skills. These problems can impact any aspect of their lives - at school, at work, and with family members.
Kids with intellectual disabilities are as varied as their abilities. Some have significant difficulty interacting with others or maintaining any kind of employment. Others perform above average compared to their peers with similar intellectual disabilities. No two kids with ID are the same. That's what makes them so interesting!
The severity of an intellectual disability is measured on a scale called the Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This score tells us how much smarter or dumber someone is than the average person. The IQ ranges from 0 to 200, with 130 being average.
Intellectual disability (also known as intellectual developmental disorder) is a neuro-developmental disorder defined by deficiencies in general cognitive functions such as reasoning, planning, judgment, abstract thinking, academic learning, and experiential learning. These deficits can be seen throughout life; however, they are most evident during the developmental stages when individuals are at their most capable of changing their environment and taking advantage of opportunities.
People with intellectual disabilities may have difficulties with language, learning, problem solving, memory, transportation, self-care, and social skills. The degree of difficulty varies for each individual. Some people with intellectual disabilities may have no problems with daily living activities such as eating meals without assistance, going to the bathroom, making phone calls, or keeping appointments. Other people may only achieve these actions with help from others.
The etiology of intellectual disability is manyfold and includes genetic factors, fetal alcohol syndrome, birth trauma, infectious diseases, such as viral infections and syphilis, which can lead to cerebral palsy; environmental factors, such as low oxygen at birth; and various forms of brain damage caused by excessive use of drugs or alcohol, traumatic injuries, or genetic disorders that affect the developing brain.
People with intellectual disabilities often have co-occurring medical conditions, some of which are treatable, such as diabetes or heart disease.
Intellectual disabilities are defined by the DSM-5 as neurodevelopmental disorders that begin in childhood and are marked by intellectual impairments as well as challenges in conceptual, social, and practical aspects of functioning. The DSM-5 diagnosis of ID requires three criteria to be met: 1. Significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning 2. Deficits in two or more areas of adaptive behavior 3. The onset of these problems before age 18.
In the past, psychologists have used other terms to describe people with intellectual disabilities, such as mental retardation or developmental disability. The term "mental retardation" is now used to describe a group of cognitive deficits that appear during early development and last for your entire life. This definition includes individuals who have significant limitations in both intellectual ability and in daily living skills. By contrast, "intellectual disability" refers to significant limitations in both intellectual ability and in daily living skills. Although everyone with an intellectual disability will also have a mental illness to some degree, not all people with mental illnesses have an intellectual disability. For example, someone who has schizophrenia may lose many skills but still have an IQ above 70.
The DSM-5 eliminated the previous categories such as mild, moderate, and severe. Instead, it uses a continuous scale where intellectual disability is rated from 0 to 3 points, depending on how much support an individual needs. An individual who has an IQ score of 70 or below receives the diagnosis of intellectual disability.
Language difficulties, like other learning impairments, are frequently developmental. They can, however, appear as a result of a neurological condition or a traumatic event involving the brain, such as a stroke or a head injury. Language problems also may arise because of problems with how the brain processes information about words and sentences. This type of language difficulty is called expressive language impairment.
Expressive language impairment can be due to a physical cause such as a neurological problem with the brain's speech production center or it can be due to a mental illness. For example, someone who suffers from bipolar disorder often has trouble expressing himself/herself properly because he/she is not in control of his/her emotions most of the time. Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition that can be treated but not cured.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) defines language processing disorders as "difficulties in using linguistic information, which may affect understanding verbal instructions, conversations, and writing assignments." The two main types of language processing disorders are receptive language disorder and expressive language disorder. People with receptive language disorders have more trouble listening than speaking. They may seem to understand what others say to them, but they cannot make their own thoughts or ideas clear. Individuals with expressive language disorders have more trouble producing words than listening to others speak. They may repeat themselves or use incorrect grammar during conversations.