Ethnomethodology is a theoretical approach to sociology based on the belief that by disrupting a society's normal social order, you can learn about its normal social order. Ethnomethodologists investigate how people account for their actions. They try to understand why some explanations are accepted as correct by most people involved.
People usually explain their actions in terms of reasons. A reason is any fact or object that makes someone do something. For example, I washed my car because it needed to be cleaned. Reasons are important to people because they allow them to make sense of their actions. It also allows others to predict what will happen next time they see me wash my car.
In addition to reasons, people also use accounts to explain their actions. An account is a story or sequence of events that explains why someone did something. For example, I washed my car this morning before coming to work because there was dirt on the floor of our garage. I didn't want to get stuck cleaning it up all day.
People prefer different types of reasons and accounts. Some people like simple explanations that can be used to repeat similar actions in the future. These people often have good memories and find it easy to remember previous things they have done. Others prefer more complex reasons and accounts that cannot be used to predict future behavior.
Ethnomethodology is the study of how social order is formed in and through social interaction processes. It aims to give an alternative to orthodox sociological methodologies in general. It is a challenge to the social sciences as a whole in its most extreme form. The central idea of the choice of answers to this question can be summed up in two words: deviation and replication.
Deviation because it tries to explain social phenomena by looking at how people actually behave rather than what we expect them to do. Replication because it looks for examples of these behaviors to see if they hold true for other cases.
The concept was first put forward by Basil Bernstein who, in his book The New Sociological Movement (1958), argued that the traditional methods of the social sciences were inadequate to explain modern society. He proposed a replacement methodology called "ethnomethodology" or "the study of how social orders are created through social action".
This new approach was not accepted by all sociologists at the time but it has recently become more popular again. In fact, some recent books on sociology have been heavily influenced by it. The central idea of deviation and replication is one that many good books in sociology share. They try to show how social structures arise from the actions of individuals or groups. This is done by looking at how people actually live their lives rather than using statistics to estimate the presence of certain traits in populations.
Ethnography is largely concerned with the long-term study of a group of individuals. Ethnography is a research approach, whereas ethnomethodology is a subfield of sociology that studies how people in various civilizations form their social orders.
In addition to studying groups of people, anthropologists also study individual humans. Anthropologists use the terms "culture" and "social structure" to describe the shared knowledge and behaviors of a group and its members. An individual's culture is his or her collection of learned behavior patterns, while the social structure is how these patterns are organized in society. For example, an anthropologist could analyze both the culture and the social structure of American Indians before European settlers arrived in what is now the United States. The study of individual humans is called "psychological anthropology." Psychological anthropologists seek to understand how individuals perceive themselves and others in order to explain cultural differences.
Anthropologists can conduct their research in a variety of settings including museums, archives, and private homes. They may even travel to undeveloped countries to study unmodified human societies. Although all anthropologists must complete an undergraduate degree program prior to entering the field, not all undergraduates plan to become anthropologists. Those who do will usually pursue additional training after graduating from college. Some attend graduate school to study topics related to anthropology, while others work as ethnographers.
What is the fundamental concept of ethnomethodology? Break societal standards and see how others react. This can be done by simply observing how people use language to communicate ideas and relationships, or by listening to how they talk about certain topics. The latter method is called "ethnography."
Observing how people use language to communicate ideas and relationships is called "interactional linguistics." The term "ethnomethodology" was coined by George Herbert Mead to describe this field of study. He argued that social actions shape the meaning of words and thus language usage. These patterns can be seen in the ways people interact with one another as well as in many other aspects of society. Language is not just a tool for communicating ideas, but also shapes those ideas.
Mead based his theories on field studies he conducted while working with American Indians. He noticed that when two Indians did not know each other well, they would often say hello with a handshake. But if they were friends or relatives, they would usually hug or kiss. Thus, language reveals social relationships that may not be apparent from merely looking at someone else's face.