As a result, the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion was born. In all of these cases, neither explanation is entirely supported since physiological arousal does not appear to be required for the emotional experience, but it does appear to play a role in increasing the intensity of the emotional experience.
In emotion, how do arousal, expressive behavior, and cognition interact? According to the Cannon-Bard theory, our physiological response to an emotion-inducing stimuli happens at the same time as our subjective experience of the emotion (one does not cause the other). So, when someone sees a scary movie or reads a scary book, they tend to become aroused. That feeling of being aroused makes them want to express themselves by doing things like screaming or running away from the source of fear. At the same time, their cognitive system is working hard to make sense of what has happened and to determine what action to take next.
This example shows that emotion is a complex phenomenon that involves interactions between physiology, behavior, and cognition. We will discuss each of these aspects in more detail below.
According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, stimulating events cause emotions and bodily reactions to occur at the same time. For example, seeing a snake may cause both terror (an emotional response) and a rapid pulse (a physical reaction).
The James-Lange theory of emotion states that feelings are what make things emotional. Emotions are experienced as feelings either physically or mentally. An example is fear which can be felt physically (as a rush of blood to the face) or mentally (as anxiety). Anxiety can also make us feel hungry or thirsty.
The neurophysiological theory of emotion claims that specific parts of the brain are activated when we experience certain emotions. Feelings are thought to be produced by changes in the activity of these nerve cells.
The evolutionary theory of emotion assumes that emotions serve an important function in keeping us safe from harm. Fear makes us run away from danger and protect ourselves, for example. The problem with this theory is that it doesn't explain why some emotions should have evolved in the first place. For example, why did fear evolve if it causes us so many problems?
Emotions are said to have emerged during evolution because they help us deal with life's challenges.
Several theories of emotion, as indicated in [link], have been presented over time to explain how the various components of emotion interact with one another. Emotions, according to the James-Lange theory of emotion, come from physiological arousal. According to this theory, emotions are responses to actual or potential bodily harm. People experience emotions when their body systems are activated, causing specific changes in their physiology. These changes include increases in heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate; changes in the chemical composition of blood; and variations in immune function. Based on these physiological changes, people experience feelings such as fear, anger, sadness, and joy. When these feelings last for some time, it becomes possible to describe them as emotions.
The psychodynamic theory of emotion states that emotions are responses to events that affect important aspects of an individual's self-image. Psychologists have also suggested that emotions may be responses to events that affect an individual's social status. The cognitive theory of emotion states that emotions are judgments about the significance of events. On this view, emotions are evaluations of the relative safety or danger of the situation, with emotional reactions following logically from this assessment. Finally, the evolutionary theory of emotion states that emotions are responses triggered by events that threaten our survival. These threats can arise either because we are physically vulnerable to attack or because we have lost valuable resources (e.g., food, shelter).