Abstract Posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSS) is increasingly recognized as a severe health concern. It is easily described as symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but start no sooner than 30 days after experiencing the traumatic incident. Symptoms include anxiety, anger, depression, feeling disconnected from others, problems remembering things, and trouble sleeping.
In the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), PTSD has been renamed to reflect the fact that it can occur without having previously experienced a trauma. The term "complex post-traumatic stress disorder" (CPTSD) is used when someone suffers from both PTSD and another mental illness such as an addiction or bipolar disorder. CPTSD often leads to more severe symptoms than either PTSD or the other mental illness by itself. For example, someone who suffers from depression may self-medicate their symptoms by drinking too much alcohol. In this case, the person would have CPTSD along with an alcohol use disorder. There are different types of therapies that can be effective in treating CPTSD. Some examples include cognitive behavioral therapy, prolonged exposure therapy, and psychotropic medications.
PTSD affects nearly 7 million Americans each year. This number is high because people are only diagnosed if they seek medical help. However, many experience symptoms but do not receive a diagnosis.
Because both disorders have some symptoms, a relationship between fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been proposed. Until date, the temporal correlations between traumatic experiences and the emergence of PTSD and FMS symptoms had not been investigated. However, recent studies suggest that these conditions may, in fact, be manifestations of the same disease.
People who have FMS are at increased risk for developing PTSD if they have a close relative with the condition. Also, people who have FMS are more likely to experience chronic pain and sleep problems, which can lead to anxiety and depression. Finally, certain medications used to treat FMS may cause or exacerbate symptoms of anxiety or depression.
It is thought that traumatic events can trigger the development of FMS by causing damage to nerve cells in certain areas of the brain that control pain sensation and other functions. This could result in pain signals being sent out inappropriately, thus causing pain that does not correspond to any actual injury. The diagnosis of FMS requires that all other possible causes of pain have been ruled out. These other possibilities include physical problems such as arthritis or cancer.
If you think you may have PTSD, it is important to seek help. There are many different types of therapy that can be effective in treating this condition. It is best to work with someone who knows how to diagnose PTSD and other psychological disorders so that appropriate treatment can be given.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may have existed for as long as mankind has been subjected to trauma. The American Psychological Association eventually recognized it as a diagnosable disorder in 1980, when it added it in its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for mental health practitioners. Prior to this recognition, researchers believed they were simply studying people who had become "traumatized" after certain events. However, with the introduction of diagnostic criteria, they were able to make more precise estimates of how often this phenomenon occurred.
In actual fact, prior to this diagnosis, psychologists were merely describing the symptoms that patients were reporting after experiencing traumatic events. These symptoms can be very similar to those seen with other disorders such as depression or anxiety, which explains why researchers didn't consider them separate problems until later studies determined what percentage of people who had experienced trauma went on to develop these symptoms.
It is estimated that 10% of the population will experience PTSD at some point in their lives. This means that one out of every ten individuals will meet the full diagnostic criteria for the disease at some point after a significant traumatic event occurs. Symptoms typically begin within four weeks of the incident and last for more than seven days. In some cases, they may even continue into future exposures if the person does not receive proper treatment.
The most common traumatic events leading to PTSD include combat experiences, natural disasters, sexual assault, physical abuse, and neglect.