Standpoint theory is a feminist theoretical viewpoint that holds that knowledge is gained from one's social position. The viewpoint disputes the objectivity of traditional science and claims that research and theory have overlooked and suppressed women and feminist methods of thinking. Thus, it is critical of scientific practices and argues for greater inclusion of non-scientific perspectives in science.
Feminist theories are interpretations of reality based on the experiences of women. They aim to explain some of the reasons why there are differences between the ways men and women think about their lives and their relationships with others. Feminist theories also seek to address some of the negative effects that these differences can have on women's lives, for example, through prejudice and discrimination. There are many different types of feminism including liberal feminism, socialist feminism, radical feminism, and postmodern feminism. Not all forms of feminism are equal in their approach to addressing issues related to women's rights; some focus more on economic equality while others focus more on political equality.
Traditional science is concerned with describing how things are independent of who looks at them. Objectivity is the belief that scientific findings are not influenced by personal beliefs or opinions. Science is considered objective because researchers test their ideas against evidence from both inside and outside the laboratory.
Scientists use models to understand complex systems in nature or technology. Models can be physical (such as mathematical equations) or conceptual (such as mental pictures).
In addition, the interpretative frameworks employed in qualitative research were improved. Postpositivism, social constructivism, transformational, postmodern viewpoints, pragmatism, feminist ideas, critical theory, queer theory, and disability theory are among them. These schools of thought influence how researchers conduct their studies as well as what they learn from them.
Interpretive frameworks provide a way for researchers to organize and make sense of the huge amount of information that comes out of interviews and other focus group methods. They also help guide the analysis process by providing a way to think about the data set as a whole. The four main types of interpretive frameworks are analytical, theoretical, conceptual, and methodological.
Analytical frameworks are used when making sense of some specific aspect of the data. For example, an analyst might use an analytical framework to make sense of some common themes that arise during interviews with participants of a certain age. The goal is to identify what these themes are and how they relate to one another so that future research can be done on this topic.
Theoretical frameworks are broad categories that aid in understanding a large body of evidence or information. Examples include gender theories which explain how our two-dimensional (male/female) society influences who gets hired and promoted, and racial theories which try to understand why people have different skin colors.
Critics argue that because it is founded on viewpoint theory, the emphasis on subjective experiences can lead to paradoxes and the inability to identify common sources of oppression. The notion of intersectionality is designed to shed light on processes that feminist theory and movements have frequently missed. It suggests that different types of discrimination--such as racism, sexism, and heterosexism--intersect with one another to create a single dominant culture that affects everyone in society. Oppression arises when a person or group possesses more than one type of privilege. For example, someone who is both white and male would be able to enter most universities without any problems, but if that person were also born into wealth, they would have an easier time getting into college.
Intersectionality has been criticized for its focus on individual experience over structure. It has also been argued that since all forms of oppression share the same root cause-systematic inequality-the idea of multiple intersecting oppressions does not add much knowledge about how individuals are affected by these forces. Finally, some have questioned whether or not intersectionality is truly necessary given that many other social theories exist that deal with multidimensional issues. However, despite these criticisms, intersectional theory continues to grow in popularity.
Activities-"The Sociological Point of View" Sociology-Chapter 1: Terms/Names
|theoretical perspectives||A general set of assumptions about the nature of things.|
|theory||An explanation of the relationships among particular phenomena.|
|history||The study of past events.|
Sociological theory is frequently classified into two basic categories: positivism and interpretivism. Interpretivists contend that the study of human society must incorporate subjective ideas, opinions, feelings, and values that cannot be directly seen and tallied in addition to factual and ostensibly objective evidence.
Interpretivism focuses on how people make sense of their worlds. It assumes that they do so by creating theories or models that explain what is happening around them and why it is happening as it is. These theories are often very simple and crude but they serve an important function - they help people make sense of an increasingly complex and confusing world. Interpretive theories can also be called "schemas" or "ways of seeing things."
Interpreters constantly compare what is going on around them to existing theories or models. The best interpreters develop an understanding of many different theories over time and then choose which one(s) to use for particular situations. For example, an interpreter might believe that social behavior is generally motivated by fear. If this belief is accurate, then it should be possible to understand most acts of aggression or violence as attempts to achieve a certain goal through the manipulation of others.
In conclusion, interpretivist theory suggests that people create ways of explaining what is happening around them. These theories are useful because they allow individuals to make sense of the world. Without them, life would be difficult if not impossible.
Safeguards for objectivity Objectivity in social research is the positivist notion that, to the greatest extent feasible, researchers should stay detached from what they examine, so that conclusions are based on the nature of what was researched rather than the researcher's personality, views, and values. This principle is particularly important when conducting research with human subjects because personal biases can enter into studies even if they are not consciously considered by researchers.
Objectivity in science is the belief that scientific findings are objective, meaning that they are free from any subjective influences, such as personal opinions or values. Objective observations are those that can be verified by other scientists or experts. Subjective observations are those that cannot be verified by others; instead, they must be confirmed by what people say about their experiences. For example, when a scientist observes an event, he or she is making an objective record of what happened; but how the person observing made this observation is subject to his or her personal beliefs and feelings at the time. This is called subjectivity. Science aims to remove all bias from observations, which means that data should be gathered as objectively as possible without distorting what is seen.
In psychology, objective observations are those that can be replicated by other psychologists. This does not mean that every psychologist could repeat the study identically, but rather that the results of the study would be consistent across different laboratories or institutions.