Respect for humans, beneficence, and fairness are three core concepts among those commonly acknowledged in our cultural tradition that are particularly pertinent to the ethics of research involving human beings. The concept of respect includes notions such as reverence, value, and dignity. It is important because it reflects our belief that all humans have intrinsic worth that cannot be taken away by their behavior.
Beneficence refers to the obligation to do good and avoid harm. In other words, we must try to make the world a better place, one person at a time. This principle underlies much of what health professionals do every day: help patients overcome illness or injury, prevent disease, and increase longevity.
Fairness concerns equality of treatment - everyone should receive the same treatment they deserve, based on their individual status. This means that research subjects should not be discriminated against because of their age, gender, religion, race, or any other factor beyond their control.
These three principles form the basis of almost everything done by scientists when performing studies with human participants. They are always considered when deciding whether or not to conduct a study, where to locate the study site, who will be invited to participate, and what type of information should be collected during the course of the study.
The four basic ethical concepts are identified and explained: beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, and fairness. These four principles underlie most ethical theories.
Ethical theories can be divided into two main groups: deontological theories and teleological theories. Deontological theories hold that there are some actions that just are wrong regardless of the consequences. Thus, in a deontological theory, certain acts have absolute moral status or value. In contrast, teleological theories hold that some actions are right because they lead to something good or beneficial. Thus, in a teleological theory, act-consequence relationships determine whether an action is right or wrong.
Which of these theories do you think best describes morality? Why?
Deontological theories believe that there are actions that are absolutely wrong no matter what happens. They believe that every act has equal moral value and that nothing can make an act any more or less morally correct. Because of this, deontologists often include lists of immoral actions in their explanations of why certain practices are considered wrong. For example, a deontologist could say that cheating on exams or lying to get ahead at work is always wrong because it violates others' rights to honest work and fair tests.
Within the code, there are four ethical principles that are the key fields of accountability for researchers to consider: respect, competence, responsibility, and integrity. These principles apply to psychologists who conduct research as well as those who do not, so they are important values for all psychologists to embrace.
Respect is the first ethical principle. When conducting psychological research, it is essential to maintain a high degree of respect for participants by engaging in activities only when it is possible to obtain informed consent. In addition to being respectful of individuals, it is also important to be aware of the effects of your actions on groups. For example, if you assign people to different conditions in an experiment without their knowledge or permission, this would be an example of unfair treatment and lack of respect.
The second ethical principle is competence. This means that researchers should only engage in activities they are qualified to conduct. If you find yourself in a situation where you are not sure whether you have the necessary skills to conduct some type of research, it is best to ask for help from someone who does. Even if you believe you will be able to handle the task yourself, it is important to keep in mind that everyone has limits; if something appears too difficult or impossible, it probably is.
The third ethical principle is responsibility.
The most fundamental and internationally acknowledged ethical concept that transcends geographical, cultural, and professional borders is respect for human dignity. It serves as the intellectual underpinning for many of the other ethical standards advanced by professions. The eight principles of the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights are based upon this concept.
In addition to being the most fundamental ethical principle, respect for human dignity has several other attributes that make it a powerful force for good in today's world:
It is objective. There is no subjectivity about whether or not one has been treated with dignity - either you have been made to feel welcome even if you cannot pay or you have not, or you have been made to feel like less than human. This makes it possible to measure countries against this standard. It is also effective. If followed consistently, it will always lead to good results. Finally, it is consistent. The more we understand how valuable people are as individuals, the more we shall do everything we can to ensure that they remain that way under any circumstances.
People are unique. They should be valued and respected because of their individuality and dignity, even if they can't take care of themselves or aren't responsible for their actions.
What is the least important factor in making an ethical decision? Feelings.