Distinguish between the following frequent speech organizing patterns: categorical/topical, comparison/contrast, geographical, chronological, biographical, causal, problem-cause-solution, and psychological. Learn how to select the optimal organizing pattern, or combination of patterns, for a particular speech. Understand the basic principles behind effective categorization.
Organizational patterns can be used to organize ideas in speeches that cover a broad topic. For example, you could organize your talk on the history of Rome by category rather than in strict time periods because there is so much to cover and little time to do it. Or you could organize by contrast, comparing modern life with that of ancient Rome, to show how much things have changed over time.
There are several types of organizational patterns. One method for categorizing them is by what type of structure they are able to give to their presentation. Categorical patterns are best used when the speaker wants to give an overview of a large number of subjects. Topical patterns are most useful when the speaker wants to focus on one specific subject for an extended period of time. Comparison/contrast patterns work well when you want to look at two similar things and explain why they are different. Geographical patterns are good for speakers who want to explore a region or country thoroughly. Chronological patterns are best for speakers who want to cover an extensive period of time and follow its progression from early times through to the present day.
Organizational Structures There are eight types of organizational patterns.
Organizational patterns are connections structures that assist an organization achieve its goals. They are typically seen in professional organizations. Typically, the patterns are generated by researching several professional groups and discovering comparable structures in their social networks. The patterns may then be published to help other organizations generate similar structures for themselves.
In general, there are several types of organizing patterns in writing. Examples include chronological order, significance order, comparison and contrast, and cause and effect. Chronological order adheres to a definite timetable of events and is frequently observed in stories having a defined beginning, middle, and finish. In this type of structure, it is usually necessary to know the time elapsed between each event in order to understand the story correctly. For example, if it is known that a certain action takes place every five years on April Fools' Day, then we can be sure that at least one such event has taken place since the last one occurred.
Significance order is used when you want the reader to understand what something means by relating it to other things that are already known. For example, if I were to tell you that John was blue and white, you would probably not need me to go on to describe his car or anything else about him. You could guess from that description alone that he was from Canada. This shows that importance is just another way of describing significance. All significant facts or concepts should be given priority in significance order.
Comparison and contrast is how two things that are similar are used to explain what makes them different. For example, if I told you that John was like water and Mary was like fire, you would know that they have similarities but also differences.
Organizational patterns demonstrate the links between supporting information in paragraphs, essays, and chapters. Furthermore, a topic phrase or thesis statement may not indicate how the paragraph will be organized. The organization of the paragraph may vary significantly from its initial form to its final version.
These patterns include:
Paragraphs that explain or justify the main idea of the essay or chapter. These paragraphs often begin with a sentence that states or implies the main idea of the piece. They usually include details related to this idea.
Paragraphs that describe the main ideas within each section of the essay or chapter. These paragraphs often begin with a sentence that lists one or more of the main ideas for that section. They should also include details related to these ideas.
Paragraphs that give examples or explanations based on the text. These paragraphs often begin with a quotation or excerpt from the text that provides context for the explanation or description that follows.
Paragraphs that question aspects of the text. These paragraphs often begin with a question that probes further into the text's meaning or implications.
Paragraphs that discuss issues related to the text.
Kroeber's famous anthropological works on the patterns that underpin culture and civilization also have origins in organizational patterns. The word "pattern" comes from a French term meaning "appearance," which reflects its origin as an art form.
Organizational patterns can be divided up into five major categories: tree, chain, web, matrix. Each type of pattern has a different implication for how power is distributed within an organization. Tree patterns are the most flexible because they allow for the addition or removal of branches to adjust to changing needs. Chains are next most flexible because they can grow or shrink by adding or removing links. Web patterns consist of a central hub with lines branching out to connect with other groups or individuals. Matrices have rows and columns, with each cell being responsible for performing a specific task. These cells link together to form a grid.
Tree, chain, and web patterns are all fairly flexible forms of connection. They are ideal for organizations who want to be able to adapt their structure to meet new challenges or changes in need. Matrix patterns are less flexible since each cell must work with its neighbor to perform its function. They are best used when you know what kind of structure will be needed and can ensure all cells will be linked together before starting the process.