Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a motivation theory that asserts that five kinds of human needs govern an individual's behavior. These demands include physiological requirements, safety requirements, love and belonging requirements, esteem requirements, and self-actualization requirements. Physiological needs are those which must be met immediately to keep someone alive, such as breathing air or drinking water. Safety needs are those that protect individuals from physical harm or disaster, such as avoiding roads where dangerous substances may be present or being sheltered from the wind when climbing a mountain. Love and belonging needs involve wanting to connect with others and feel important in one's community. Esteem needs are those that allow people to be recognized for their accomplishments, such as winning awards or doing something famous. Finally, self-actualization needs are those that help people reach their full potential, such as by following a career they enjoy or exploring life beyond the limits of their society.
The original theory was presented in a paper entitled "A Theory of Human Motivation" by Abraham Maslow, who published it in 1943. He later modified the theory by adding two more levels to it: feeling guilty if one fails to meet one's physiological needs and feeling frustrated if one fails to meet one's safety needs.
In 1950, Edward L. Thorndike published a book called The Nature of Human Behavior, in which he applied Maslow's ideas about human needs to animal behavior.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology that consists of a five-tier model of human wants, which is sometimes shown as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. The model was first proposed by American psychologist Abraham Maslow in his 1954 book Motivation and Emotion.
It suggests that people have a set of basic needs that must be satisfied for them to be content and able to pursue their goals. These needs can be categorized into two groups: physiological needs and psychological needs. Physiological needs include requirements such as food, water, and sleep. Psychological needs include desires such as love, acceptance, and purpose. According to this theory, if any one of these needs is not met, people will not be satisfied and will thus be motivated to meet the need at the next level on the ladder.
Physiological needs are primary because they must be fulfilled before anyone can focus on meeting psychological needs. If someone does not eat, for example, they will be too weak to care about anything other than eating. Similarly, if a person does not get enough sleep, they will be too tired to care about anything other than sleep. Psychological needs can only be met once all physiological needs are taken care of first. If someone is hungry or thirsty, for example, they will not have any energy left over to feel loved or important.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a hypothesis proposed by psychologist Abraham Maslow in 1943 in his work "A Theory of Human Motivation." In five stages, he discusses what he considered was required for human sustenance and enjoyment. Today, his theory continues to influence psychologists, social scientists, and other academics who study motivation.
Motivation is the force that drives an organism to perform an action. Physiologically, it is the body's response to a stimulus such as food or sexual opportunity. Externally, motivation may be described as the impetus behind a person's behavior. Motivation comes in two forms: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation results from doing something because it gives rise to an experience or satisfaction outside of itself (e.g., eating chocolate helps reduce stress). Extrinsic motivation involves receiving something material or intangible in return for performing an act (e.g., money, praise).
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations can co-exist within the same behavior sequence. For example, someone might engage in an activity for its own sake but also receive a feeling of pleasure when it succeeds. Or someone might do something to avoid punishment but still get a thrill from succeeding.
Intrinsic motivation is more likely to lead to sustained behavioral change as opposed to extrinsic motivation.