The critical thinking framework consists of eight thought elements: goal, problem question, information, inferences, ideas, assumptions, consequences, and point of view. These elements should be present in any reasonable definition of critical thinking.
Goal: A clear statement of what we want to achieve. What is the purpose of this thinking process?
Problem question: A question that calls for an answer that will help us reach our goal. This element involves seeking out problems or questions about which we need knowledge or insight.
Information: The identification and analysis of facts. This element involves searching for and evaluating evidence that can help us decide what to believe or not believe.
Inference: An explanation based on known facts or principles of why something else also must be true. For example, if I know that all mammals are animals and that elephants are mammals, then it makes sense that an elephant is an animal. This element involves using previous information or facts to make predictions or conclusions about new situations.
Idea: A suggestion for a solution to a problem. This element involves coming up with your own solutions rather than just copying things from others.
Assumption: Something that we take for granted as true; a premise without proof.
Critical thinking is multifaceted, comprising intellectual (logic, rationality), psychological (self-awareness, empathy), sociological (in terms of socio-historical context), ethical (norms and moral evaluation), and philosophical (meaning of nature and human existence) dimensions. This article focuses on intellectual dimension only.
Critical thinking is the practice of thinking about thinking in order to improve it. Critical thinkers strive to develop their thinking in three stages that are interconnected. They examine how people think. They evaluate how people think. They alter their own thinking in light of what they have learned from examining and evaluating themselves and others.
In other words, critical thinking is a process of self-evaluation that seeks to improve one's ability to think. It involves analyzing one's assumptions about the world so as to recognize any that may be irrational or unjustified. Based on this analysis, one can then revise one's beliefs and opinions to match the facts rather than the other way around. This makes critical thinking an essential component of science education because it helps students understand that knowledge is constructed by humans and is thus not objective; instead, it is subject to change as new evidence comes to light.
Critical thinking is also important for students to learn because it helps them deal with problems in everyday life. For example, when trying to decide where to go on vacation, students who are able to critically analyze their options will be better able to make a decision than those who simply follow the crowd. Critical thinking is also needed when trying to solve crimes or come up with alternative solutions to issues such as climate change. In all these cases and more, it is essential that students be taught to think critically.
Defined Critical Thinking Making reasoned, rational, and well-thought-out judgements is what critical thinking entails. It is a mode of thinking in which you do not just accept all of the reasons and conclusions that are presented to you, but rather adopt an attitude that involves questioning such reasoning and conclusions. You seek out more information and consider other points of view so that you can make informed decisions.
In order for your judgments to be considered critical they must be based on something. What is that something? Data! Critical thinking requires that you gather data about a situation or issue before coming to any conclusions. Only then can you make reasoned judgments as to what should be done or thought about next.
For example, if someone tells you that Einstein was born on January 18th, 1879, you should question this information because it isn't data available to everyone. The only source given is a website, which does not provide any proof of this information being true. If you choose to believe them then that's your decision but it wouldn't be fair to say that you were relying on critical thinking because you didn't look up evidence for or against this claim. Even though this case is simple, most people don't do this. They just accept what others tell them without checking up on their facts. This is not how real life works!
In conclusion, critical thinking is making reasoned judgments about situations or issues by using data from different sources.
What exactly is critical thinking? (Sumner, William Graham, 1906) [Critical thinking is]... the analysis and testing of every notion provided for acceptance to evaluate whether or not it conforms to reality. It involves questioning assumptions, examining evidence, and reaching conclusions based on reason and experience.
Critical thinking is used by philosophers and scientists as a tool for analyzing ideas. Critical thinkers ask themselves questions about their beliefs and try to find answers that are both true and useful. The goal is to make sure that you aren't jumping to conclusions without good evidence supporting your view.
Some people think that only scientists need to be critical thinkers, but this is not true. Everyone needs to learn how to think critically because it helps us analyze information effectively and makes us more aware of our own beliefs.
Sumner says that critical thinking is "the ability to distinguish valid reasons for believing something or holding an opinion, from mere preferences or prejudices." This means that you should only believe things if you can explain why they are true or provide evidence that support them. If you can't do one of these things then you shouldn't believe it.
For example, let's say that I believe that all swans are white because I have never seen a black swan. This is a preference rather than a fact because I cannot prove that all swans are white.
In this study, the critical thinking process refers to the four processes of acquiring information, assessing information, developing solutions, and evaluating the results. Each step addresses a different part of the information collecting process. This entails finding all essential information and connecting the dots...
At the problem identification stage, students collect relevant information about their environment and themselves and define the problem accurately. They also consider possible alternatives for solving the problem.
Critical thinking skills are needed to identify what information is important and how to find it. For example, when trying to solve a problem in science class, a student needs to be able to identify which data are relevant and how they can help solve the problem. In mathematics classes, students need to be able to distinguish between facts that are helpful in solving a problem and those that are not. Critical thinking also requires you to consider alternative solutions and choose the best one. For example, if there are several ways to divide up an assignment, then you must be able to decide which method will work best with your situation.
Problem-solving is only part of the picture when it comes to critical thinking. Students must also analyze information collected during the problem-identification stage carefully and connect the dots properly to come up with a solution.