Overt, Covert, Conscious, Unconscious, Rational, Irrational, Voluntary, and Involuntary conduct is classified by psychology. These behaviors have distinguishing traits. For example, an act that others see is overt, while one that only a psychologist sees is covert. Also, something that comes to mind quickly is conscious, while something stored in memory is unconscious.
Psychologists classify behaviors based on how they are affected by thoughts and feelings. If you think about something hard enough, it becomes your subconscious action. With training and experience, you can learn to control your subconscious actions by thinking about something else. The most effective methods involve using logic and reason to decide what action to take. This type of decision making is called rationalizing.
There are two main types of involuntary behaviors: reflexive and instinctual. A reflex is an automatic response that occurs without thought. For example, when someone pushes you, you react automatically without thinking about it. Your body knows what to do because this action has been programmed into it through years of experience. This type of behavior is called a reflex because the program is activated when some stimulus (in this case, being pushed) triggers the muscle group to act.
Instincts are responses that come naturally without thinking about them.
As the science of human conduct, psychology is concerned with biological explanations of behavior as well as higher-level cognitive and social aspects. Biological psychology is the study of the link between the body and the mind as it manifests itself in behavior. Modern psychological theories are based on three factors: biology, psychology, and environment.
Biology is the study of the creation, function, and structure of living organisms. Psychology is the study of mental processes and behaviors. Environment includes everything around a person that may influence his or her thoughts and actions.
Psychologists seek to understand how people think and act and why some people do what they do. They try to explain behavioral patterns by looking at their causes. Every behavior has a reason behind it. Some reasons may be obvious, such as wanting something that someone else has or needing to avoid something unpleasant. Other reasons may not be so clear. For example, someone who steals to get money to buy drugs doesn't know exactly why he or she does this, but probably has reasons related to family history, abuse, or other issues.
Once you understand the reason behind a behavior, you can then try to change it. Psychologists have ideas about how to best change certain behaviors, such as teaching an addicted person how to stop stealing or counseling someone with depression out of its cycle of negativity.
Biological, behavioral, cognitive, humanistic, psychodynamic, sociocultural, evolutionary, and biopsychosocial are the eight views on human behavior that have emerged in modern psychology. Each perspective has its strengths and weaknesses, which make it appropriate for certain situations.
The biological view of behavior is based primarily on biology: what people do tends to be motivated by goals that serve to advance their genes' survival and reproduction. This perspective emphasizes the role of nature versus nurture in explaining individual differences in behavior. It also suggests that animals behave according to a set of rules called "instincts".
Behavioral psychologists study behavior from this perspective, focusing on how events in the environment trigger responses in organisms with desires or needs of their own. They look at how these external stimuli are translated into actions. The main goal of behavioral scientists is to identify what triggers specific behaviors and then modify these triggers to change what individuals do. For example, a behavioral psychologist might help an alcoholic learn to resist the urge to drink by modifying the alcohol's effect on the brain.
Cognitive psychologists study how people think and reason, especially with reference to their use of logic in making decisions. Cognitive psychologists seek to understand how people process information and how they use this information to make judgments and choices.