Inductive reasoning allows for the conclusion to be untrue even if all of the premises of a statement are true. Here's an illustration: "Harold has a grandfatherly role. Harold has a hairless head. As a result, all grandfathers are bald." The conclusion does not logically follow from the statements. However, this doesn't mean that it is not true. It may be that most grandfathers have hair, but that Harold's grandfather did not because he was old-fashioned.
Here are other examples of inductive reasoning:
1. All swans are white. This is a generalization from observation.
2. All men are mortal.
3. Therefore, some women are immortal. From rules 1 and 2, we can conclude that some woman is immortal.
4. All bumblebees are insects.
5. All planets orbit the sun.
6. Therefore, maybe earth isn't the only planet that orbits the sun. From rule 5, we can conclude that perhaps earth isn't the only planet in the solar system that orbits the sun. This idea was later confirmed by science when scientists discovered other planets outside of our solar system that also orbit the sun.
Here's an illustration: "Harold is an old man. Harold has a hairless head. They may apply the ideas to specific circumstances through deductive reasoning. An argument can be deductive or inductive. An argument that begins with a general principle and seeks to apply it to a set of particular cases is called a deductive argument. An argument that begins with a single instance and seeks to generalize about the category it represents is called an inductive argument." - www.EssayCapital.com
Deduction is also known as "top-down" thinking because we start with the general rule or principle and work our way down to the specific instances. Induction is also known as "bottom-up" thinking because we start with the specifics and work up towards the general rule or principle.
For example, let's say we want to know how many dogs there are in America. We could start with a general rule such as "anything that lives in America must be a dog" and then use this rule to conclude that since all of the animals in America live there, therefore, they must all be dogs.
"The coin I picked from the bag is a penny," is an example of inductive logic. As a result, all of the coins in the bag are pennies. " Inductive reasoning allows for the conclusion to be untrue even if all of the premises of a statement are true. "Harold is a grandfather," for example. This does not mean that inductive reasoning is wrong or invalid. It is simply different than deductive reasoning.
Here's an example of inductive logic: "A penny was the coin I took from the bag. As a result, all of the coins in the bag are pennies." For instance, despite the fact that everything we know about gravity suggests it can't possibly cause meteor showers, people still think about it in terms of gravity causing problems for astronauts on other planets. That's why scientists must conduct experiments and look at data before coming to any conclusions.
Inductive research starts with a question that needs to be answered. The researcher then searches for information about the topic under study. Using what she finds out, the scientist forms a hypothesis about how things work or what might happen. Then, the researcher tests her hypothesis by doing an experiment or presenting some data. If the results prove her hypothesis correct, then we can say that she has discovered something new about the subject matter. If not, we may need to change or add to our hypothesis.
For example, an investigator could study how heavy objects affect the gravitational pull between two planets. He would start with a guess about how this relationship works. Then, he could test his hypothesis by dropping different objects into the earth's atmosphere from airplanes. If his hypothesis was correct, the weight of the objects would be expected to have no effect on how much gravity they felt like experiencing down here on Earth.
The scientific approach allows for inductive reasoning. It is used by scientists to develop hypotheses and ideas. They may apply the ideas to specific circumstances through deductive reasoning. Science also uses experiment as a tool for testing theories and ideas.
Inductive reasoning includes utilizing logic to infer conclusions from facts. Strong or weak induction can occur. The veracity of the premise implies that the conclusion is plausible if an inductive argument is strong. The reasoning linking the premise and conclusion is wrong in a weak inductive argument. No matter how many cases you examine, you will never know whether the conclusion follows from the premise.
Induction is different from deduction. Induction involves going from specific examples or instances to a general statement or rule while deduction starts with a general statement or rule and works its way up to the specific instances. For example, if we were to use induction to prove that all swans are white, we would need to start with one particular swan and show that it was white. This process could be repeated for every other swan so that eventually we could conclude that all swans are white. However, deduction would work differently because we would begin with the assumption that all swans are black and work our way up to the general statement that all swans are white. Even though this example uses two assumptions, deduction requires only one valid proof step from a known truth to another known truth.
Induction is central to scientific discovery. Scientists utilize induction to make discoveries about the world around them. They start with a hypothesis which is an educated guess about what might be true based on what they know about the universe.