Extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are the qualities that comprise the five-factor model. This model was proposed in 1995 by American psychologists Richard Herrmann and William McNair.
The five factors are responsible for most of what we like about people's personalities. They also account for differences among individuals that go beyond what their genes may allow. The factors are: extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism.
Extraversion is the tendency to seek out and engage with others. It includes traits such as sociability, enthusiasm, activity, and aggressiveness. People high in extraversion enjoy being around others and find it easy to connect with others. They tend to be lively, energetic, and enthusiastic, and often have many friends. On the other hand, introverts prefer less crowded situations and can feel overwhelmed by large groups of people. They may seem shy at first but once they get to know you they are usually very friendly and open up quickly.
Openness to experience is the willingness to try new things, to have new experiences, and to believe in something even when you can't explain why it's true.
The five-factor model of personality organizes personality qualities into five main dimensions: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience. Each dimension is made up of several traits that can be considered aspects of a single broader construct.
These dimensions are not fixed categories but rather representations of how people tend to think about themselves and others. For example, someone who tends to take an active role in social situations would score high on extroversion if asked about themselves or if asked about someone else. The same person might score low on agreeableness if they were described as "quick-witted" or "persuasive".
People vary in their emphasis on these factors, and it is common for individuals to be highly dominant on some factors and less so on others. For example, one study of US college students found that over half of the sample was dominated by only one factor, often introversion or independence, with most remaining balanced across all five factors.
The five-factor model has been very influential in the development of psychometric tools used to measure personalities in research studies and clinical settings. However...
...the model has also been criticized for being too simplistic a representation of human nature.
The theory describes five basic personality traits: extraversion (sometimes called extroversion), agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. These traits represent the outer shell or sphere of each person's being; each has two dimensions: a positive and a negative one.
In addition to these five spheres, psychologists also discuss the role of the superego (or ego) in shaping behavior. The term "sphere" is used here in a broad sense to describe an individual trait, an aspect of a person's nature, or their psychological make-up.
Spheres are discussed in many different theories and models. However something common to all of them is that they all assume that people can change over time and that the level of development of each person's spheres is related to their success in life.
Here is how psychologist Carl Gustav Jung described the five spheres of human nature in his book Psychological Types: "Extraversion relates to the object world; it shows itself in sensitivity, interest, and enjoyment from other people. Introverts enjoy being with others, but they prefer their own company to that of others. Agreeable people are congenial and like to have others approve of them. Unagreeable people are quarrelsome and dislike others' opinions of them.
Extraversion (sometimes called extroversion), agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism are the Big Five personality qualities. Each attribute represents a point on a continuum. Individuals might be anywhere along the spectrum for each attribute. The Big Five stay generally steady for the most of a person's life. Sometimes people change their mind about which attribute they most closely associate with themselves or others.
The traits are defined by psychologists William M. Genovese and Paul P. DiLuca as follows: "Extraversion reflects a person's need for social interaction and his or her preference for involvement in one-to-one interactions over involvement with groups." Agreeable people are friendly and cooperative; they tend to get along well with others. Open people are flexible and tolerant; they like new experiences and don't like being confined to any particular role. Conscientious people are responsible and reliable; they like order and structure and usually follow through on things they starts. Neurotic people experience many negative emotions such as anxiety, depression, anger, and guilt; they often worry about possible disasters and try to avoid them at all costs. People who are stable and secure have trust in others and feel comfortable being themselves around others.
The attributes are not fixed traits but rather descriptions of how people typically behave. For example, someone who is extremely introverted will rarely seek out new acquaintances but instead prefer to spend time with friends they already knows.