What are the four types of special needs?

What are the four types of special needs?

Many youngsters (and adults) have special-needs disabilities. Physical, developmental, behavioral or emotional, and sensory-impaired impairments are the four basic forms of disability. While many impairments fall under one of these four categories, some may fall under two or more. For example, a person might be blind but have excellent hearing. This individual would then have a visual impairment but also a hearing impairment.

Special-needs children face additional challenges to their education. These may include physical limitations that make learning in a regular classroom difficult or impossible, cognitive problems such as low IQ or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that affect how they learn, and social difficulties such as anxiety around new situations or speech delays due to oral motor issues. Some special-needs children require round-the-clock care because of their medical conditions while others can function independently if provided with appropriate support.

The best way for teachers to provide a safe environment for all students is by understanding what kinds of disabilities exist and providing ways for students to communicate their needs. For example, if a student has a vision problem but can read well enough with audio cues, teaching him or her in a classroom with sound equipment available will allow for better comprehension.

Students with special needs should be identified as early as possible so that proper accommodations can be made. This will help everyone involved--the student, his or her family, and the school--reach their full potential.

How many types of special children are there?

Special-needs children are classified into four categories: Physical conditions include muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, persistent asthma, epilepsy, and others. Autism, dyslexia, and developmental-down syndrome are all examples of processing abnormalities. ADD, bipolar disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and other behavioral/emotional disorders make up the mental health category. Finally, medical conditions include cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and immune system deficiencies.

There are approximately 3 million people in the United States who have some form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). That's about 1 in 150 children. Of those, about half have what's called "syndromic ASD," which means they also have another physical condition such as microcephaly (small head size) or seizures. The other half of people with ASD do not have any other known cause for their symptoms; these are called "non-syndromic" cases.

About 70,000 Americans have primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIIDs), which are a group of more than 100 genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to fight off infection. People with PIIDs are more likely to develop autoimmune disorders, cancers, and infections.

Almost 6 million people in America have some form of chronic kidney disease (CKD). About 130,000 of them are on dialysis machines help control their water balance and remove toxic substances from their bodies.

What are the four categories of sending?

The Department of Education distinguishes four categories of special educational needs and disabilities (SEND):

  • Communication and interaction.
  • Cognition and learning.
  • Social, mental and emotional health.
  • Sensory or physical.

What are the four categories of developmental disabilities?

Developmental disorders are classified into four categories: nervous system impairments, sensory-related disabilities, metabolic disabilities, and degenerative disorders. There are other subgroups of disability that fall within these four broad categories. For example, people with mental retardation have both a neurological and an intellectual impairment. They can be further divided into two groups: those who have mild mental retardation or moderate mental retardation. Those with mild mental retardation may also have some problems with understanding speech and learning skills, whereas those with moderate mental retardation may have more significant problems with these abilities.

Neurological disorders affect the way the brain functions, including its structure. People with neurological disorders may have physical problems as well. For example, someone with cerebral palsy may have poor muscle control due to damage to the brain during birth. Other examples include autism, which is often associated with severe mental retardation; epilepsy, which is characterized by repeated seizures; and schizophrenia, which is a chronic condition that affects how someone thinks and acts like there's something wrong with them.

Sensory disabilities are caused by deficiencies in the sense organs. These defects can be even greater than you might imagine - for example, someone who is deaf and mute. Metabolic disabilities are related to deficiencies in the body's ability to use nutrients for growth and repair.

About Article Author

Tashia Wilhelm

Tashia Wilhelm is a caring and experienced psychologist. She has been practicing for over 8 years and loves what she does. Tashia enjoys working with children and adolescents because they are still developing as people and she likes to help them reach their full potential. She also enjoys working with adults who are looking for help with issues such as anxiety, depression, or PTSD.

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