Skinner's approach was founded on the belief that classical conditioning was much too basic to provide a thorough account of complicated human behavior. He felt that the best approach to understand behavior was to examine the reasons and consequences of an action. This method was dubbed "operator conditioning" by him. The idea is that we learn about what causes us to act in certain ways by observing those things that cause other people to act in similar ways.
Skinner proposed that all behaviors can be explained in terms of two processes: a stimulus-response process and a reward-punishment process. A dog who has been trained to fetch sticks will one day respond when told to do so, even though it hasn't been given any stick to fetch. The trainer has created a connection between saying "fetch" and giving someone a stick. When this connection is made repeatedly, the dog will eventually start to expect to be told to fetch every time someone says "fetch."
This is called operant conditioning. It refers to the fact that animals will engage in certain actions to obtain something they want. A dog who has been trained to fetch sticks will also go to anyone who says "fetch," even if they aren't giving out anything for free. The dog wants to be able to fetch so it will continue to go after those who say "fetch" even if there are no sticks involved.
Skinner's theory is based on operant conditioning. Skinner conducted research on shaping behavior through positive and negative reinforcement and demonstrated operant conditioning, a behavior modification technique that he developed in contrast with classical conditioning.
In positive reinforcement, an action that produces a desired effect is followed by an additional effect or "reinforcer". The reinforcer increases the likelihood of the desired action being performed again. Negative reinforcement is the removal of a negative event or consequence to make an organism behave in a way that will prevent this event from happening again.
For example, if you want someone to like you, giving them something they want (such as attention or a reward) will make them like you more. This is positive reinforcement because you want the person to like you so you give them what they want.
Negative reinforcement works in the same way except that it removes an unpleasant event or consequence instead. For example, if you don't want someone to hate you, then telling them "You making him/her feel bad will not help so stop doing that" is negative reinforcement because hating people is an unpleasant experience that prevents you from being hated yourself. The more we use any behavior, the easier it becomes to reproduce that behavior in the future.
Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which an animal learns about its environment by interacting with it.
B. F. Skinner was a very prominent American psychologist. As a behaviorist, he established the theory of operant conditioning, which states that behavior is governed by its consequences, whether they be rewarding or punishments, which make the action more or less likely to occur again. In his book, Behaviorism, he wrote about how organisms act and what can be done to change those actions.
In summary, B.F. Skinner's behaviorist theory states that behaviors are conditioned by their consequences; therefore, if a person wants to change something about themselves or someone else, they need to learn how through trial and error. This can be accomplished through two processes: reinforcement and punishment. Reinforcement means giving a person something they want after they have performed some kind of action; punishment means taking away something they want in order to stop them from doing something wrong.
Behavioral psychologists study how and why people act as they do by observing and testing models who show certain behaviors. They also study the effects that different environments have on individuals' behaviors by measuring and comparing the rates at which individuals reproduce their own behaviors in different situations. Finally, behavioral psychologists try to find ways to help individuals with their problems by seeking out information about how people behave under similar circumstances and then providing treatment plans based on this knowledge.
Skinner's (1904-1990) B.F. Skinner, in contrast to Watson and Pavlov's beliefs, felt that what follows after a behavior, rather than what comes before it, influenced it. Behaviors are altered in operant conditioning when they are followed by either positive or negative reward. Thus, according to Skinner, behavior is shaped by its consequences.
In his book, The Behavior of Organisms, published posthumously in 1996, Skinner proposed a radical new idea about the nature of human behavior: "Men behave as if they were trying to get something," he wrote. "They try to obtain food, shelter, love, attention...they try to avoid pain, danger, and deprivation."
This idea was contrary to the traditional view that people have innate psychological traits that influence their behaviors; instead, Skinner believed that everything we do is motivated by some kind of reward or punishment.
For example, if you give a child a cookie for not hitting others, this will likely cause him to stop hitting others. This is because he wants the cookie so much that his first thought is not "I should not hit others" but "I wonder what kind of cookie I can find first?".
Similarly, if someone is being aggressive toward you, don't take away their cookie jar—instead, offer them a gold star on a silver plate. This will teach them that making you angry will get them negative results.