Atelectasis is classified into three types: sticky, compressive, and obstructive. Sticky atelectasis occurs when small airways collapse after a severe insult such as smoke inhalation or acute respiratory failure. These areas of consolidation do not reopen upon removal of the cause.
Compressive atelectasis results from excessive use of muscles that can lead to compression of the lungs and decreased lung volume. This type of atelectasis can be long lasting and requires treatment of the underlying condition. Compressive atelectasis can also occur in healthy individuals who exercise vigorously using only their skeletal muscles.
Obstructive atelectasis results from increased resistance to airflow within the lungs. This type of atelectasis can be temporary or permanent and often causes breathing difficulty. Obstructive atelectasis is most commonly caused by tumors or other lesions that block small airways. It can also be caused by severe pneumonia or bronchitis that does not resolve itself.
The three types of atelectasis can co-exist within one patient. For example, a patient may have obstructive atelectasis due to a tumor while also having some residual functional airway tissue that can still produce some sticky atelectasis under certain conditions.
Atelectasis is defined as the reversible collapse of lung tissue with volume loss; frequent causes include intrinsic or extrinsic airway constriction, hypoventilation, and a misplaced endotracheal tube. Atelectasis can be acute (occurring over days to weeks) or chronic (lasting for months to years). The term usually refers to an acute collapse of a segment of a lobe due to obstruction of bronchioles by mucus or blood products.
Generally, patients who experience atelectasis will improve once the underlying cause is removed. In some cases, it may be necessary to mechanically ventilate the patient during recovery because of reduced oxygenation levels. A patient's airway must also be checked to make sure there are no blockages that would prevent airflow.
It is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of atelectasis so that its presence can be inferred and the appropriate treatment initiated. Acute atelectasis often results in rapid deterioration due to increased work for breathing caused by the lack of ventilation/perfusion matching for oxygen. This can lead to severe hypoxemia, acidosis, and respiratory failure. Patients typically present with one or more of the following: shortness of breath, pain with breathing, decreased appetite, fever, and weight loss.
Tissue systems are classified into three types: dermal, vascular, and ground. Dermal tissues consist of skin and subcutaneous tissue while vascular tissues include blood vessels and lymphatic system. Ground tissues consist of bone, muscle, fat, and connective tissue.
These tissue systems work together to provide support for organs within the body. They also act as sites of chemical reaction (i.e., metabolism) while providing insulation from heat and pressure. For example, skin is a protective barrier against heat, cold, chemicals, and physical injury while muscles allow us to move our bodies. Fat stores energy for use later when we need it while bones provide structure and protect vital organs. Connective tissue provides strength and flexibility to organs as they function inside the body. Blood vessels carry oxygenated blood from the heart and lungs to all parts of the body via the body's network of blood vessels. The lymphatic system returns fluid and soluble proteins back to the bloodstream through special channels called lymph vessels. Lymph nodes are located throughout the body where they play an important role in immune response prevention efforts.
Dermal tissues are covered by a layer of hair or feathers and contain several different types of cells that produce enzymes that aid in digestion, break down toxins, and so on.
Bacteria of the genus Eubacteria are classified into three types: bacilli, cocci, and spirilla. Bacilli have rods as their shape; they make up most of the bacteria found in the human body. Cocci include spheres, capsules, and tetrads; these are all found in clusters within cells. Spirilla are thin, straight or coiled filaments not attached to any other organism.
Eubacteria were first discovered by Louis Pasteur in 1877. He named them "bacteria" after his old university, where he was professor of chemistry. These tiny organisms are everywhere around us: in soil, water, food, and other plants and animals. There are many different kinds of eubacteria, but they all share some common features. All living things are made of molecules called atoms. And like other living things, eubacteria are made of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and calcium. However, unlike people or other animals, they cannot grow or reproduce without help from other organisms. This is why scientists say that bacteria are the simplest form of life. They can only make proteins out of amino acids and sugar from nutrients in their environment. They cannot produce their own food like plants or animals can.
Atelectasis is caused by an obstructed airway or pressure from outside the lung (nonobstructive). A prominent cause of atelectasis is general anesthesia. It alters your typical breathing rhythm and impairs the exchange of lung gases, causing the air sacs (alveoli) to collapse. 5% to 20% of the time, patients who have had general anesthesia develop atelectasis, which can lead to pneumonia.
The most common symptom of atelectasis is shortness of breath. Other symptoms include cough, chest pain, fever, and sweating. If you have any of these symptoms after surgery, contact your doctor right away.
Your doctor will conduct a physical examination and ask you about your past medical history in order to identify other possible causes of your symptoms. You may be asked to take a detailed history of your postoperative recovery including questions regarding sleep patterns, smoking habits, alcohol use, medications, and exposure to environmental pollutants.
If necessary, further testing may be done to confirm the diagnosis. This may include tests such as a chest x-ray, pulmonary function test, oxygen saturation level, electrocardiogram (ECG), blood tests, and/or a bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL).