An argument must have at least one reason in favor of its conclusion, in addition to a conclusion. A rationale or a premise is a proposal presented in support of a conclusion. Reasons can be divided into two types: formal and informal.
Formal reasons are based on established principles or rules that help explain why something is true or likely to be true. For example, the principle of contradiction states that nothing can both be red and not-red. This logical rule helps us understand why no matter what color something is, it cannot be both red and not-red. Formal reasons are important because without them, we would not be able to prove many propositions from definitions or assumptions.
Informal reasons are things that happen regularly or in this case, "because I said so." In other words, someone decides to do something because they think it's a good idea. Informal reasons are not as important as formal ones, but they are still useful in explaining certain events or behaviors. For example, someone might build a house out of cardboard and glue because they like how it looks but also because it is cheaper than using real wood.
When giving a reason for believing or doing something, make sure it is valid. If it is not valid, then the reasoner will not believe or act upon the claim.
A systematic series of arguments (or objections) that seek to support (or reject) a primary assertion is referred to as an argument. The core claim is known as a contention, conclusion, hypothesis, or stance; it is what the author or arguer wants you to believe. Reasons are assertions that are made in support of other claims. They are usually derived from evidence found in the form of facts, examples, or observations.
An argument consists of two parts: a conclusion and reasons used to support it. The conclusion is the main idea that an argument wants you to believe. It is always expressed in plain language and can be as simple as "A is B", or as complex as a full sentence. They can be further divided into three categories: premises, justifications, and applications.
Premises are statements taken for granted as true before the argument begins. They are necessary for the argument to work. Justifications are additional statements provided after the argument has been presented to show why the premise is indeed true. Applications are uses of the conclusion that have not yet been mentioned in the argument. They can be new examples or cases studied along with the argument, or they can simply be ideas for future research. Either way, they help explain how and why the conclusion follows from the premises.
Now that you know what an argument is, let's see one in action!
In an argument, a premise is a statement that offers justification or support for the conclusion. A single argument can have one or more premises. In an argument, a conclusion is a statement that shows what the arguer is attempting to persuade the reader or listener of. These are your surroundings. These are my arguments.
An argument consists of two parts: a claim (or assertion) and a defense of that claim. The claim is the premise(s), while the defense is the response to any objections that may be raised to the claim.
A formal argument contains three elements: a claim, which is supported by at least one premise; a conclusion, which answers the question posed by the title; and evidence, which is used to support the claim's defense of its own validity. Evidence can take many forms: quotes, statistics, studies, other arguments, etc. Quotations are pieces of original text in which the claim and defense are expressed in the same sentence. Statistics are numerical values representing facts or opinions about a population. Studies are investigations of some topic carried out by several researchers working together. Other arguments are simply different ways of looking at the same facts or opinions - for example, history and analogy are methods of arguing used by philosophers. Finally, evidence can also be observations made by people as they live their lives - for example, police reports of events seen at crime scenes or medical records of patients treated by doctors. Such examples of evidence are called factoids.
Arguments must follow a well-defined structure: first, they must have reasons (or else they are just opinions); and second, they must contain reasons that do not contradict each other or presume the conclusion's veracity. An argument is considered sound if there are no gaps in its reasoning and its conclusion follows naturally from the premises.
An argument may be valid even if it fails to persuade the audience or judge. A persuasive argument appeals to reason and logic rather than emotion or prejudice. Persuasive arguments can be used by lawyers when arguing cases in court.
The term "argument" can also be applied to statements made by politicians in election campaigns. The aim of this type of argument is to convince the audience of its truth using logic and evidence from history and the present. Successful political arguments rely on rhetoric, which is the use of language to create emotions in the audience to gain support for policies or positions.
In academia, the study of arguments and their construction is called argumenology.
An argument is valid if it uses all four forms of argument correctly and effectively. Although invalid arguments can be effective tools for making a point, it is better to avoid using invalid methods because they will not work.