What exceptionality does ADHD fall under?

What exceptionality does ADHD fall under?

Although ADHD is not designated as a particular category of exceptionality, kids with ADHD may exhibit features that might be classified as learning impairment or behavior. For example, they might have difficulties in school because they are unable to pay attention for long periods of time, do well on easy tasks but struggle with more difficult ones, or get upset by trivial incidents. These same children might also have problems with self-control; they may act out aggressively or violate the rules without thinking about the consequences.

ADHD is considered a neurobiological disorder that affects the brain's ability to regulate mood, focus, and energy. It is commonly believed to be present before age 18 and most often starts in childhood or adolescence. Although it can sometimes be diagnosed after age 14, this is rarely the case. Symptoms usually first appear before age 7 and often include: difficulty focusing on one thing for extended periods (less than 10 minutes in adults), losing track of what you were doing last minute (such as forgetting where you put your keys), being distracted by extraneous noises or images (tv commercials, background music), feeling restless when trying to stay focused on one task for longer than 20 minutes, acting without considering the consequences (e.g., yelling at someone over something that wasn't even real).

What category of exceptionality is ADHD in?

This webcast explores tactics that have been shown to be effective with challenging pupils. It also discusses strategies for helping students with ADHD learn in school.

What are some uncommon signs of ADHD?

Atypical ADHD Symptom Presentation: Learning Difficulties (trouble memorizing, forgetting assignments, poor written expression, poor listening and reading comprehension, poor handwriting, impulsive learning style, etc.) may also be present.

ADHD is often characterized by the presence of certain "atypical" symptoms that may not be prominent in other disorders. Atypical symptoms include attention problems with anxiety or depression, irritability, aggressive behavior, hyperactivity, cognitive problems with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or dyslexia, or sexual dysfunction. Although most children will experience these behaviors at one time or another, those who exhibit several of them over a long period of time may have ADHD.

ADHD is usually diagnosed based on a child's history of problematic behavior and results of psychological tests called rating scales. Parents/caregivers and teachers can provide information about how well-adjusted and successful students' are at school. They can also report if they see changes in their child's behavior that indicate a need for help.

There are several different types of rating scales used to measure the severity of ADHD symptoms and determine how well your child is responding to treatment. One type of scale asks parents to rate their child's behavior on a continuous basis during a specified period of time (for example, during a single day).

What are some disorders that can occur along with ADHD?

Learning deficits, anxiety, depression, sensory processing disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder are the most prevalent ADHD comorbidities. About 30% of people with ADHD also have a language-based learning disability known as dyslexia. About 20% have an anxiety disorder, such as panic attacks or obsessive-compulsive disorder. About 10% have bipolar disorder or another type of mood disorder. About 5% have schizophrenia or another type of psychotic disorder.

People with ADHD are about twice as likely as others to develop depression. They're also about twice as likely to develop anxiety disorders. About 15% of people with ADHD will develop bipolar disorder or another type of manic-depressive illness.

About 10% of people with ADHD will develop schizophrenia or another type of psychotic disorder. People with these conditions may experience problems with attention and focus, as well as hyperactivity/impulsivity.

People with ADHD are about three times more likely than others to suffer from alcohol or drug addiction. The reasons for this association aren't clear, but it's possible that people with ADHD are more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as driving under the influence of drugs or eating disorders associated with body image issues.

Can ADHD cause other disorders?

Many children with ADHD often have additional issues, such as behavioral or conduct difficulties, learning disabilities, anxiety, and depression, to name a few. The coexistence of ADHD and other illnesses frequently creates additional obstacles for children, parents, educators, and healthcare professionals. Although ADHD can be diagnosed independently from any other conditions, it is important for doctors to rule out other possible causes of behavior problems before making an official diagnosis of ADHD.

ADHD can lead to violence toward others and self-injury. Children with this condition may hit others or themselves in anger. They may also engage in other self-harming behaviors such as hitting their head against a wall, punching holes in the wall, or pulling their hair out.

Those who suffer from ADHD are two to three times more likely than others to commit suicide. Studies show that boys with ADHD are eight times more likely than others to attempt suicide and seven times more likely to complete it. Girls with ADHD are twice as likely as others to attempt suicide and four times more likely to complete it. Suicide is the number one cause of death among adolescents and adults with ADHD.

ADHD is associated with many other health problems, some of which are discussed below. It is important for patients and families to know about these associations so they can be monitored and treated if necessary.

Children with ADHD are at increased risk for several medical conditions.

About Article Author

Barbara Pinto

Barbara Pinto is a licensed psychologist, who has been practicing for over 20 years. She has experience in individual therapy, marriage and family therapy, and group therapy. Barbara's areas of expertise include anxiety disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), among others.


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