This is a condition that occurs when societal rules are ambiguous or no longer apply. Theory of Control Deviance is explained as a natural phenomenon. The Theory of Cultural Transmission It characterizes deviation as a learnt behavior. The Theory of Cognitive Deficiency It attributes this behavior to mental illness.
Theories of Deviance in Sociology Behavioral theories are frequently used in sociology to better explain why people choose to defy social norms. According to one view, aberrant conduct is learnt, and the younger the learner and the more connected they are to the instructor, the greater the proclivity for that behavior. These theorists claim that if sufficient time passes without punishment, then the behavior will be repeated.
Other theories suggest that individuals have a tendency to seek out new experiences or ways of living. They claim that if someone finds themselves dissatisfied with their current situation, they will look for something else within reach that will offer a better life. Finally, some theorists believe that people are responsible for their own actions, and thus can decide what role they want to play within society. They assert that if someone wants to change their behavior, they can decide to do so.
Finally, some theorists claim that there are external forces that cause people to behave abnormally. For example, some individuals may be predisposed to commit crimes because they have an antisocial personality disorder. Others may feel compelled to break the law because they believe it to be appropriate or necessary for survival of the species. Still others may rebel against societal expectations because they feel alienated from the majority culture.
These are only some of the many theories regarding the motivation behind abnormal behavior. What's important to note is that all sociological theories aim to explain how and why people act as they do.
Say it aloud: "Pause." Deviance, according to Durkheim, aids in the clarification of norms, the unification of the group, the dissipation of stress, and the promotion of social change. Deviance is used to determine the limits of permissible behavior. Deviance distinguishes between conforming members of society and outsiders or deviants. By definition, a deviant acts against societal expectations. However, many scholars include within this label individuals who violate social rules but whom society nevertheless accepts because they are outcasts.
In his book The Origin of Species, Charles Darwin argued that natural selection creates evolutionary adaptations that allow organisms to better adapt to their environments. This idea is known as selective evolution. According to this theory, only those organisms that exhibit behaviors that help them survive will be selected by nature. Over time, this process will result in evolved traits that distinguish one species from another.
For example, scientists believe that the ability to use tools arose in primates who used sticks to probe for food or escape from danger. The first humans probably did the same. Eventually, these activities became so ingrained in our brains that we call them instincts.
Later, when weapons became available, people turned them on each other to see who could use them best. This led to contests where individuals would show off their skills by fighting other people (or animals) with their fists, feet, teeth, and objects like clubs and spears. These contests would later be called wars.
To understand how to avoid upsetting society, one must first understand what acts are considered aberrant. The key to understanding the disruption and recalibration of society that occurs across time is deviance. Some characteristics will be ostracized and may create social disturbance. These features include physical deformities, mental disorders, infectious diseases, and differences in language, religion, or culture.
Awareness helps us recognize problems before they become disruptive forces in our society. It also provides the information needed to develop effective solutions to deviancy issues. Awareness can be raised through education and awareness campaigns by organizations like the Red Cross who want to reduce violence against women. These efforts can help identify problematic trends early on so that adjustments can be made to prevent more serious incidents.
Awareness of societal problems can also be increased through media. News programs such as 20/20 and Dateline NBC provide examples of how awareness campaigns can bring attention to certain issues within our society. They can also highlight successful methods for preventing future incidents. For example, a recent episode of Dateline NBC featured a case study on how one town used surveillance cameras to decrease crime.
Last, awareness can be increased through personal experience. If someone close to you has been victims of violence or other crimes, it would be easy to forget about these incidents if they weren't brought to your attention.
1. The cultural relativity of deviance No thought or behavior is intrinsically deviant; it only becomes such in connection to specific standards. Sociologists define "deviance" as a transgression of cultural norms. Thus, all people violate social norms at times. However, some do so more frequently than others. These more frequent violators are called deviants.
Cultural standards are the sets of values that individuals within a society share. These values limit what behaviors are considered appropriate or inappropriate. Social norms are the shared judgments about what behaviors are acceptable or not acceptable. People often disagree about which behaviors are appropriate or inappropriate, thus creating room for deviation and sanction. Cultural standards and social norms are often in conflict with one another-for example, individual desires may be inconsistent with what is socially acceptable-and this is where deviation occurs.
One way in which societies maintain consistency between their cultural standards and social norms is through punishment. If social norms are not enforced, then they have no power over behavior. Punishment serves to both notify members of society when a norm has been violated and discourage future violations by showing an adverse effect on the violator. For example, if social norms prohibit violence against others, and someone sees someone being hurt, he or she might help stop the attack.
Theories Deviant behavior can be seen as a statement of uniqueness and identity, and hence as a revolt against mainstream cultural group norms in favor of a subculture. In a culture, an individual's or a group's conduct affects how a deviant builds norms. These norms may then become accepted by other members of the community.
There are two types of theories that attempt to explain why some people choose to act out in ways that go against what others do. One theory is called the social learning theory, which states that people learn how to act by observing others around them. The more often someone sees certain behaviors being done correctly, the more likely they are to copy those behaviors themselves. So, if you want a friend to start dressing differently, hang out with individuals who are already doing so.
The other theory is called the motivation theory. This theory states that people commit acts of deviance because they seek attention or feel compelled to fulfill some need. Needs such as power, love, acceptance, and knowledge can be fulfilled through deviant actions.
Both theories have their advantages and disadvantages. The social learning theory explains why some people would want to break away from the norm, while the motivation theory explains why some people would want to fit in. Neither theory fully covers all cases of deviant behavior, but they do provide a good starting point for further exploration of this topic.