A psychological system founded on the concept that the essence of persons is their presence. This is a process that finds significance across a person's life, including the client's personal history. The therapist must have an understanding of this process if he or she is to help the patient deal with his or her problems.
Existentialists believe that human beings are necessarily confronted with two fundamental questions: why are we here? What is the meaning of life? They argue that without finding answers to these questions, your life has no purpose and is therefore meaningless. Existential psychologists focus on how people try to find meaning in their lives by looking at their experiences, considering how they affect them personally, and making sense of what they call "the human condition."
The term "existentialism" was first used by French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-80). In his famous book Les Mots et les Choses (The Words and Things), published in 1946, he argued that since there is no God who could give us reason for being here, we must create our own reasons for living. He also claimed that because all consciousness comes before the world, we should look for the "for-itself" in every person's experience.
In other words, whereas existential psychology is concerned with the quest for meaning (as well as man's alienation from the world), humanistic psychology is concerned with the search for self (as well as man's estrangement from one's own self).
Existential psychologists such as Sartre and Camus sought to answer the question of why there is meaning in life. They argued that because we are free and conscious beings, we must be responsible for determining our own fate in life. Thus, we should strive to find meaning in our lives by choosing how we want to live it.
Humanistic psychologists like Maslow believed that every person needs to know that they are valuable and worthy of respect before they can seek or find meaning in their lives. They argued that without this sense of value and worthiness, people will always feel alienated from themselves and others which will inevitably lead them to look for meaning elsewhere.
Furthermore, existential psychologists believe that reality as we know it is only an illusion created by mankind while humanistic psychologists argue that the individual exists independently of the environment which they shape by their actions.
These are just some of the many differences between existential psychology and humanistic psychology. Existential psychology can be considered a subfield of psychological theory while humanistic psychology is regarded as a branch of philosophy.
In philosophy, the postulated ontological actuality at the heart of anything determines what it is and what it is not. The idea of essence is essential in psychology because it is crucial to issues of personhood, particularly concerns of human agency and of the It is therefore vital for personality theories.
Some theorists believe that an entity's essential nature can be identified by analyzing its most fundamental properties or characteristics. For example, some thinkers claim that the essence of a person is made up of a series of traits or capacities that define that person as unique.
Others believe that an entity's essential nature cannot be identified through analysis of its properties but must be discovered through experience. They say that an entity's essential nature can only be known through reflection on how that entity functions as part of a larger whole. For example, some psychologists claim that the essential nature of consciousness is existence independent thought and feeling. Others say that the essential nature of love is belongingness.
Yet others believe that an entity's essential nature cannot be known but must be created through purposeful action. They say that an entity's essential nature is a set of goals that guide an individual's actions and shape their thoughts and feelings. For example, some people claim that the essential nature of leadership is making other people feel important by giving them tasks to do and values to live by.
Essence theory has had significant influence on psychology.
According to humanistic-existential treatments, psychological discomfort is caused by emotions of loneliness, alienation, and an inability to find purpose and true fulfillment in life. Humans are driven by a desire for personal development and self-actualization, as well as a natural urge to grow emotionally. However, without adequate social support systems, many people are unable to reach their full potential.
Humanistic therapies focus on the following aspects of mental health: emotional maturity &; resilience, interpersonal competence, autonomy, independence, moral integrity, ethical behavior, faith in something bigger than oneself, and sense of purpose in life. These aspects are all intertwined with each other, but they can be divided into two main groups: psychological and social.
In general, psychological factors involve how we think and feel about ourselves and others. These factors include: self-esteem, a sense of identity, values, goals, and dreams. The term "social factors" refers to matters related to our relationships with others: empathy, respect, kindness, gratitude, and honesty. Psychological therapies aim to help patients change unhealthy thinking and feeling patterns that underlie many mental disorders. For example, patients who suffer from anxiety may be taught different skills such as cognitive restructuring or stress management techniques to help them cope better with future threats.
Social factors involve understanding one's role within society and taking action to make positive changes.
Humanistic psychology is a psychological approach that focuses on the complete individual. Humanistic psychologists examine human behavior not just from the perspective of the spectator, but also from the perspective of the person performing the behaving. They try to understand how people think and feel by looking at their actions.
Human psychology aims to explain all types of behavior in terms of different mental processes. It tries to account for everything we do or say as a result of what goes on in our brains. Modern psychologists study human behavior across the lifespan, across cultures, and within clinical populations.
In addition to its interest in understanding why we think and act as we do, human psychology has many other important applications. For example:
Psychologists have been able to help individuals with problems such as alcoholism, drug addiction, and obsessive-compulsive disorder by studying how people normally respond to threats to their well-being and then designing interventions that prevent these normal responses from causing harm.
We also use psychology to make us better employees, parents, and friends.
Employers can identify likely candidates for job promotions by having them take tests that measure their cognitive abilities (i.e., intelligence). This form of selection process is called selection testing.