Hobbes defined power as the capacity to secure personal well-being or advantage "to acquire some future seeming good." He believed that humans have "natural power," which sprang from internal traits such as intellectual eloquence, physical strength, and prudence. This natural power allows individuals to obtain resources they need to live a comfortable life.
However, humans also have "political power" which arises from the fact that all people are members of certain groups called "assemblies." These assemblies protect their own interests by giving some members more political power than others. For example, if an assembly fears for its security, it can grant military commands to certain individuals rather than others. Political power is thus the ability to influence these groups in order to get what you want.
According to Hobbes, political power is not absolute; instead, it depends on how much force someone can bring to bear. If an individual has no weapons, he cannot exercise political power over others. However, if someone has many weapons but no skill with them, he will be able to do little damage with them. Thus, the more skilled we are at using violence, the more power we will have.
Hobbes also believes that humans will use whatever power they have to achieve their goals. If one assembly defeats another, it will replace the leaders of the defeated assembly with ones more favorable to itself.
What were Hobbes' major features of humanity? Humans are fundamentally greedy beings. Humans are motivated by an insatiable quest for power that ends only with death. All humans are equal in dignity but some are more equal than others.
Hobbes believed that human nature is bad and that therefore we need a strong leader to protect us from ourselves. He also believed that people will always try to abuse their power over others, so there needs to be an authority that can prevent this sort of behavior by punishing those who commit it. For Hobbes, the only solution to this problem was government - any type of government would do; it could be a monarchy, a republic or even a dictatorship. As long as it had the power to punish its citizens, then it could keep them in line.
In conclusion, Hobbes believed that humanity was bad and needed protection from itself. Therefore, he proposed a system of government where there is no place for freedom of speech or religion, nor do individuals have any rights that the government cannot take away. The only way to keep peace between people is through a strong leader that can make decisions about punishment and security.
Hobbes argued that the finest form of the sovereign may be a government led by a monarch. Hobbes maintained that concentrating all power in the hands of a king would result in a more firm and consistent use of political authority. Additionally, having one ruler instead of many reduces conflict over power between different branches of government.
However, according to Hobbes, this is only an ideal form of government because in practice no single person could have absolute power over another. In order for there to be peace among individuals, they must be subject to a force greater than themselves. For this reason, he believed that only through a strong state can human nature be controlled by law rather than violence.
Furthermore, contrary to popular belief, Hobbes did not support democracy as such; he supported a representative government with limited powers. He believed that democracies tend to become tyrannies because voters are likely to choose leaders who are willing to take advantage of their position. Thus, the best form of government is one where the people have control over their rulers, but not enough power to be able to oppress others.
Hobbes also opposed monarchy because he believed that one man could not fulfill both roles of head of state and head of household. Therefore, he advocated for a republic because it would avoid the problem of having one person responsible for representing everyone else in society.
Hobbes claimed that moral notions do not exist in man's natural condition. Thus, when speaking about human nature, he simply defines good as what people seek and evil as what they shun, at least in their natural form. Hobbes utilizes these ideas to describe a wide range of emotions and behaviors. He believes that fear is the only emotion that exists in wild animals because it is necessary for survival. Therefore, humans with social structures such as governments should not feel other emotions such as love or hate since this would be detrimental to themselves or others.
Hobbes also claims that war is natural between nations. In order for there to be peace between countries, they must be willing to give up some of their power through treaties or alliances. Alliances are useful because they provide protection against attack from outside sources while treaties are useful because they allow two countries to work together on issues such as building bridges or sending astronauts into space.
Finally, Hobbes believes that humanity is naturally selfish. We want what we believe will benefit us most so we will try to take it by any means available. This includes fighting wars over resources such as land or money.
These are just some examples of how Hobbes views human nature. There are many more aspects to his philosophy but this should give you an idea of where he came from and what kind of world view he had.
Thomas Hobbes' theory of natural rights grew out of his view of man in his "natural condition." He contended that the fundamental natural (human) right was "to employ his own power, as he wills, for the preservation of his own nature; that is to say, of his own life." (Hobbes emphasized the word "natural"...this was not a concept embraced only by philosophers. The common people of his time also believed in natural rights.)
Hobbes said that before men enter into a social contract they already have certain natural rights, such as the right to defend themselves and their property from attack. These are the only obligations men can make with one another because all other agreements would be self-defeating—men would only agree to restrictions on their own liberty.
Does this mean that after entering into a society men lose all sense of responsibility for their actions and can do whatever they want without fear of punishment? No, because there still remains a sovereign who can grant or deny these rights and punishments are still used in some countries to enforce moral behavior. However many people believe that since there is no God who can judge them, then they can do anything they want and there is no reason why they shouldn't act accordingly.
According to Hobbes, without sovereignty (government) men are so evil that they will always engage in violent conflicts over power. He argued that only through an agreement establishing sovereign authority could human beings live together in peace.
Because individuals are innately brutish and greedy, Thomas Hobbes believed in a single authority (a king). How did Hobbes describe people's quality of existence in nature? Meaningful, long-lasting, philosophical, and contemplative. Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness are all fundamental rights. In other words, everyone has the same value and deserves the same treatment.
Hobbes also explained that because of this state of nature, people would naturally form groups to protect themselves. Thus, society would be an outgrowth of our need for protection. It would not be something good or bad but rather something natural that had to be tolerated until a ruler came along to help resolve problems between people.
Finally, Hobbes said that in order for civilization as we know it today to exist, people needed to have a commitment to a leader. If no one was willing to commit himself to someone else, then there would be chaos and violence. Only by surrendering some of their freedoms could people create a better world where they could live in peace.
In conclusion, Thomas Hobbes believed that only through a strong leader could humanity achieve true peace and prosperity.