Emotional valence relates to the degree to which an emotion is favorable or negative, whereas arousal refers to its intensity, or the power of the accompanying emotional state (Feldman Barrett & Russell, 1999; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1997; Russell, 2003). For example, fear is a negative emotion with respect to humans because it signals that something bad is about to happen. At the same time, fear is also considered to be a strong emotion because it makes us try to escape from or avoid what caused it.
The distinction between these two variables is important because they influence how we perceive and react to situations that cause emotions. Fear can make us want to run away from a scary situation, for example, while excitement can make us want to go explore new places or do new things.
In addition to these two main factors that determine emotional valence and arousal, other factors such as personal relevance, expectancy, and context may also play a role. Personal relevance involves the idea that the emotion you experience is somehow connected to you personally - maybe because someone close to you has caused it, or it could be due to something that happened to you recently. Expectancy refers to the notion that you can predict what will cause you to feel a certain way when you encounter it. For example, if you expect someone you dislike to come into contact with you, then you will feel anxious when this person comes near you.
Affective Dimensions Emotional valence refers to the repercussions of an emotion, emotion-inducing events, or subjective sensations or attitudes. Arousal is scientifically measured as sympathetic nervous system activity, although it may also be quantified subjectively by self-report. The two dimensions are distinct but related: Positive emotions tend to be associated with increases in both arousal and affective valence, while negative emotions tend to be associated with decreases in both.
Affect is a broad term that covers many different aspects of our emotional experience. Affect can be divided into two main categories: positive and negative. Positive affects include excitement, interest, love, joy, and happiness. Negative affects include anger, distress, sadness, and fear. These categories reflect how we feel about something or someone, not what happens during certain emotional episodes. For example, you could feel sad after losing a loved one, even though there was no negative event involved.
Every aspect of affect involves both arousal and valence. Arousal is increased or decreased depending on whether we experience something as pleasant or unpleasant. Valence refers to how we perceive something or someone - whether it is positive or negative. In other words, arousal influences how we feel about something, while valence determines how we respond emotionally to it.
Unsourced material will be challenged and removed if it is not properly sourced. Valence, as used in psychology, refers to an event, item, or situation's intrinsic attraction or "good"-ness (positive valence) or averseness or "bad"-ness (negative valence). Additionally, the phrase describes and categorizes distinct emotions. Positive emotions include excitement, interest, love, joy, hope, and pride. Negative emotions include anger, anxiety, boredom, depression, distress, guilt, hatred, jealousy, loneliness, pain, disappointment, rage, fear, and disgust.
Valence, also known as hedonic tone, is an emotive property that refers to an event, object, or situation's inherent attractiveness/"good"-ness (positive valence) or averseness/"bad"-ness (negative valence). Anger and fear, for example, are usually referred to be "negative" emotions since they have a negative valence. Happiness and love are called "positive" emotions because they have a positive valence.
Objects, events, and experiences with higher hedonic values are considered positive, while those with lower hedonic values are considered negative. Hedonic value is the primary driver of emotion-related behavior; feelings of pleasure or displeasure drive people to seek out or avoid certain objects, events, or situations.
Hedonic value was first proposed by American psychologist Burton Richter in his book The Psychology of Beauty. He argued that we find some things more attractive than others because they produce positive feelings when we experience them. This idea formed the basis of hedonism, the view that happiness is the only intrinsic value and that everything else can be used to serve that end.
In psychology, hedonics is the study of how perceptions of beauty and attraction are influenced by factors such as expectations, prior experiences, attitudes, beliefs, preferences, and biases. These effects all influence what people find pleasing or not pleasing.
People tend to prefer those things that give them positive feelings over those that give them negative feelings.