Structuralism was the first school of psychology, and it emphasized breaking down brain processes into their most fundamental components. Introspection is a strategy used by researchers to try to comprehend the fundamental parts of consciousness. As we have seen, introspection can be difficult or impossible, so psychologists have also looked at data from behavioral experiments to see how animals learn and remember.
Psychology as a scientific discipline only began in the mid-19th century with the work of Francis Galton and William James. Before this time, descriptions of mental phenomena such as thoughts, feelings, and memories were done primarily through analogy to physical phenomena like gravity and electricity. In other words, people just "felt" like things did when they fell down stairs or if a cable broke on a streetcar. Modern science began to analyze these experiences in more detail after the development of experimental methods in the 1800s.
In conclusion, introspection is the process of thinking about one's own mind. It is difficult or impossible to do so directly but can be inferred from what others think and feel. Observational studies use evidence gathered from behavior to understand how humans and animals think and feel.
Structuralism likewise holds that the mind can be divided into its component pieces, which then combine to generate conscious experience. The Gestalt school of psychology, which contends that the mind cannot be split down into discrete pieces, also criticized this. They argued that even if you could divide up the mind into its components, what would remain after the division is done is simply another body-mind system, which is no more free than any other. Thus, there is still a vital connection between thought and action that cannot be eliminated by structural analysis.
Perspectivism is the view that consciousness cannot be divided up at all. It says that everything we think about has an impact on our consciousness, so it can never be separated into two distinct parts: one who thinks and one who feels. Both thoughts and feelings are aspects of one single experience.
Structuralists and functionalists both agree that consciousness cannot be divided up. The only difference is that structuralists believe that there are certain structures in the brain that are necessary for consciousness to arise, whereas functionalists deny this and instead say that consciousness is just a result of certain patterns that neurons play when they fire together.
Wundt's theory and structuralism Wundt employed introspection (also known as "internal perception"), a procedure in which someone evaluates their own conscious experience as objectively as possible, making the human mind comparable to any other component of nature seen by a scientist. In Wundt's view, only through introspection could humans learn about their minds.
Structuralism is a modern school of thought that holds that the mind consists of various "structures" or organizing principles that give rise to thoughts, feelings, and perceptions. The structures themselves are not experienced directly, but only their effects - ideas, sensations, emotions - which allow us to understand how the mind works.
The Structuralist Approach was first proposed by French philosopher and psychologist Louis Claude de Saint-Martin (1760–1803). He argued that our minds consist of three basic "structures": imagination, understanding, and reason. These structures influence each other so that no one structure is stronger than another; instead, it is the way they work together that determines what kinds of thoughts we have. Imagination creates ideas by combining percepts from the world around us; reasoning explains these ideas to us; and understanding uses these ideas to make judgments about reality and ourselves.
Saint-Martin wrote several books on philosophy and psychology, some of which have been adopted as textbooks today.
Reasoning that does not embrace all given reasons and conclusions exemplifies... Which study approach was developed by structuralists to discover essential aspects of the human mind? Which viewpoint is most focused on how we learn observable responses? Observational studies seek to understand what people do by watching them act. Observational methods include direct observation, diaries, interviews, and questionnaires.
Reasoning that does not embrace all given reasons and conclusions exemplifies logicism. Logical systems date back at least as early as Aristotle's "Organon", which laid out a strict system of logic based on syllogisms (arguments with three premises and one conclusion). More recent systems include those of Descartes, Kant, and Russell. Logical systems try to capture all possible ways that arguments can be constructed from given terms (i.e., using only what's given), and then use rules to determine whether an argument follows logically from these terms or not.
Logic is thus the study of valid reasoning. Validity is defined in terms of logical consequence; if something cannot be inferred from given facts and principles, then it is invalid. For example, if I say "All dogs are mortal" and you say "Spike is a dog", then I have shown that not all mortals are dogs: Spike is not dead.