Figure 2: Prior to conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus (food) results in an unconditioned response (salivation), but a neutral stimulus (the bell) results in no response. During conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus (meal) is offered repeatedly immediately after the neutral stimulus (bell). The conditioned response is then displayed upon hearing the bell.
During classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus (such as a sound, light, smell) is repeatedly paired with another stimulus (such as food or pain). This pairing causes the neutral stimulus to have some effect on its own. For example, if you are given a shock every time the buzzer goes off, you will develop a fear of the buzzer and avoid it when possible. This is called "conditioning" because the shock becomes associated with the sound of the buzzer.
In order for something to be conditioned, it must first be learned. If a dog does not know how to sit, he cannot be taught this new behavior. Conditioning can only work with things that people teach their dogs; it cannot be used with animals who are already trained.
People use conditioning to help their dogs learn different behaviors.
The unconditioned stimulus is often a physiologically relevant stimulus, such as food or pain, that immediately triggers an unconditioned response (UR). The conditioned stimulus is often neutral at initially, eliciting no reaction, but after conditioning, it evokes the conditioned response. For example, if you are given electric shocks every time you see a dog, then a new relationship will develop between the shock and the sight of dogs. When you see a dog, your body responds by going into shock mode because the sight of dogs is associated with getting shocked.
An important concept to understand about learning is that it doesn't matter what entity is giving the unconditional stimulus or the conditioned stimulus, as long as they both trigger a similar physiological response. A light switch is used as a conditioned stimulus to open a door. However, it can also be an audible signal from a person who has been given permission to enter your room. The essential factor is that they both cause you to open the door.
So yes, unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus are the same thing.
An unconditioned response is an unlearned response that happens spontaneously in response to an unconditioned stimulus in classical conditioning. 1. For example, if the unconditioned stimulus is the scent of food, the unconditioned response is the sense of hunger in reaction to the smell of food. Natural responses are those that occur without any learning involved; they are needed for survival.
During classical conditioning, when an animal encounters something that causes it to react naturally (without being taught) to a particular stimulus, then it has learned something new and important: that stimulus causes such a reaction. In other words, it has acquired a "conditioned response".
Natural responses can also be called reflexes. A reflex is a quick, automatic nervous system response that occurs without conscious thought. For example, your body automatically defends itself against infection by triggering the immune system through certain physical reactions called "defense mechanisms". The mind plays no part in this process; you cannot will yourself to have a strong immune system. Your body responds even if you are not sick and there is no reason to think it needs to fight off an infection.
There are two types of natural responses: normal and abnormal. Normal responses are necessary for the health of an animal and help it survive in its environment. Abnormal responses involve actions that may help an animal escape danger or seek out food but that do not serve a useful purpose in everyday life.
5 A neutral stimulus is repeatedly matched with an unconditioned stimulus during the acquisition phase of classical conditioning. An unconditioned stimulus, as you may recall, is anything that naturally and immediately elicits a reaction without the need for learning. So, in order for classical conditioning to work, you must provide the stomach cancer patient with a neutral stimulus, something that doesn't harm anyone but which they will learn to associate with getting a meal.
The most common neutral stimuli used in classical conditioning experiments are words such as "bell", "light", "air" and "tone". These stimuli are usually presented repeatedly to the subject over several sessions. It's important not to pair the neutral stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus too early in training - if you do, it won't be able to replace it later on.
During the extinction phase of classical conditioning, the presentation of the unconditional stimulus is stopped. Instead, the experimenter simply shows or does something else with respect to the neutral stimulus every time it is given. After a few repetitions, the patient should stop reacting to the neutral stimulus by itself and only react when they hear the unconditional stimulus again.
This process removes any feelings of fear that the patient might have acquired during the acquisition phase of training and makes way for them to develop feelings for the neutral stimulus instead.
When the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus are presented repeatedly, the neutral stimulus will elicit a reaction as well, which is known as a conditioned response. When a neutral stimulus induces a conditioned reaction, it is referred to as a conditioned stimulus. For example, if you see someone else wearing shoes that you like, then your own feet will begin to itch, even though you have not worn shoes in several days. The person's shoes are thus becoming a conditioned stimulus that elicits a reaction from you.