Sadhana Sanba wrote this. The functionalist approach in sociology is a concept of society that emphasizes on how distinct segments of society have roles and exist in a "consensus" that preserves the overall stability and social order. According to this view, societies are defined by their functions rather than by any shared identity or history.
Modern sociologists who adopt this perspective include Emile Durkheim, William Graham Sumner, and Ralf Dahrendorf. It is also relevant to mention the work of Talcott Parsons, who developed a more comprehensive account of society as an interdependent system of structures and processes that provide order to individual lives. However, unlike many other contemporary thinkers, Parsons did not see society as inherently good; instead, he believed that it is human nature which is good or bad depending on how it is used.
So, the functionalist perspective views society as something that provides stability to individuals as they pursue their own goals in life. This view suggests that there is no single source of authority over which people or groups can claim control over society as a whole. Instead, we find multiple forces at work, including business organizations, political parties, interest groups, and even religions playing different roles in keeping society functioning normally. Although each of these entities has its own agenda, they all agree that preserving the status quo is better than changing it for the worse.
According to the functionalist viewpoint, society is a complicated system whose elements work together to generate solidarity and stability. This method examines society from a macro-level perspective, focusing on the social institutions that shape society as a whole. The key idea behind functionalism is that social behavior can be understood by studying how the parts of the system function individually as well as how they interact with each other.
Social scientists have used different terms to describe the functionalist approach, such as "systemic," "aggregate," or "componential." But they all share the basic assumption that social phenomena can be understood by looking at the functions that individual components fulfill within the greater whole. For example, psychologists who use this approach study memory by measuring how well people are able to recall lists of words and then try to explain this ability based on the role that memory plays in other aspects of human experience. Functionalists also examine cultural traits such as religion or language usage by comparing them with similar traits in other societies or communities to see what roles they play in maintaining order and communication.
Functional analysis has been very popular in sociology since its inception in the 1930's. The pioneering work of Lester Ward and John Rexford Hunton developed the approach by showing how social structures influence social behavior.
Functionalists think that social agreement holds society together, in which members of society agree on and collaborate to achieve what is beneficial for society as a whole. This distinguishes itself from the other two major sociological perspectives: symbolic interactionalism and...
Functionalist theory was developed by George Herbert Mead and John Herbert Mills.
Mead was a philosopher at Yale University who focused his attention on how people communicate with one another. He proposed that we can explain certain behaviors by looking at how they serve the purpose of harmony within society. For example, he suggested that when someone smiles it is because they are offering goodwill toward others. This is their way of showing support for everyone else in their group.
Mills was a British sociologist who spent most of his career at the University of Chicago. He extended Mead's ideas by also focusing on how society's functions are carried out by institutions such as courts and governments. Mills believed that without these key components society would collapse into chaos.
These two men's work laid out a framework for studying society from a functionalist perspective, which has been very influential in the field of sociology.
Functionalism is a significant sociological approach and is characterized as a consensus theory because it holds that society requires common norms and values in order to function correctly. Functionalists believe that without these constraints, people would be free to act according to their own desires, which would lead to chaos.
Other reasons why functionalism is a consensus theory include: its focus on the need for harmony and stability, its emphasis on the role of culture in shaping behavior, and its conclusion that human nature is basically good.
Furthermore, functionalism is a broad perspective that can be applied to any social phenomenon or system, such as economics, politics, religion, and education. It also implies that there are functions must be served in order for society to continue functioning normally. When these needs are met, individuals will be more likely to behave in ways that are conducive to social cooperation.
In conclusion, functionalism is a consensus theory because it asserts that society requires certain standards in order to function properly; without these standards, people would be free to act in any way they want, which would have disastrous effects on society.