Parenting Styles and Adolescent Relationships Previous research has found that adolescents raised by authoritative parents had lower conflict frequency and severity, as well as stronger cohesiveness, than those raised by authoritarian parents (Smetana, 1995; Assadi et al., 2011; Nelson et al., 2011; Sorkhabi and Middaugh, 2014). Authoritative parents are concerned with their children's feelings and opinions, allow them some freedom but also provide guidance and structure. They communicate openly with their kids about what is going on in their lives and try to help them deal with problems. Indulgent parents make no effort to control their children's behavior or activities, but instead use rewards and punishments to get them to obey. Overly permissive parents do not give their children enough freedom or independence.
The best way to reduce parent-adolescent conflict is to be an authoritative parent. This means setting limits for your child's behavior and communicating with them about how they can improve their relationship with you. You should also let them know that you love them even if they do something wrong so that they will not feel ashamed when they see you stand up for yourself.
It is important for adolescents to feel loved and accepted by their parents so that they will not look elsewhere for these needs. If an adolescent does not feel this way, they are more likely to seek comfort from other people, which can lead to addiction or involvement in risky behaviors.
Overall, most studies with Western samples have found that an authoritative parenting style is associated with higher levels of parent-adolescent cohesion (Nelson et al., 2011) and lower levels of conflict frequency (Smetana, 1995), conflict intensity (Smetana, 1995), and total conflict (Smetana, 1995). (McKinney and Renk). An authoritarian parenting style is associated with higher levels of parent-adolescent conflict (Smetana, 1995) and lower levels of parental acceptance (Smetana, 1995). A permissive parenting style is associated with higher levels of conflict frequency (Smetana, 1995) and lower levels of parental acceptance (Smetana, 1995).
These associations are generally consistent across gender and ethnicity. For example, authoritative parents report more positive relationships with their sons and daughters than do authoritarian or permissive parents (Furr et al., 2010). Studies have also shown that authoritative fathers' relationships with their adolescent children are better than those with their less authoritative or absent counterparts (Furr et al., 2010). Authoritative mothers report stronger bonds with their teenage sons and daughters than do authoritarian or permissive mothers (Furr et al., 2010). Permissive mothers tend to underestimate the amount of conflict they experience with their children while authoritative and authoritarian mothers overestimate the level of conflict they encounter (Furr et al., 2010).
Children who grow up in homes where love and respect are shared by both parents are more likely to develop healthy relationships as adults.
Authoritarian parents have been determined to have the most successful parenting style in a variety of areas, including academics, social-emotional development, and conduct. Authoritarian parents, like authoritarian parents, expect a lot from their children, but they also expect a lot from themselves. They believe that by setting high standards for their children, they are helping them reach their full potential.
The authoritative parenting style is based on respect and mutual agreement between parent and child. It allows for freedom within limits, and it promotes healthy conflict resolution skills. Children are given freedom within reason, and when they choose to act responsibly and make good decisions, they are allowed more freedom. If children start to feel restricted, they will most likely protest by acting out or refusing to comply.
The democratic parenting style is similar to the authoritative style, but it gives more power to the child. For example, a democratic father would not make major decisions about his family's finances without asking his children for input first. The paternal authority is based on love and trust, and it encourages children to be responsible for their own actions. When they make good choices and take ownership over their lives, they are given more freedom.
The authoritarian parenting style is most commonly associated with harsh discipline practices such as spanking. It assumes that if you give an order, then everyone should obey. Children who are subjected to this type of parenting are often denied their right to express themselves and ask questions.