Personality disorders are distinguished by long-standing, persistent, and rigid patterns of inner experience and behavior that differ from the individual's societal standards. These disorders can be seen in many types of patients, including psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers. Patients with personality disorders often have problems forming close relationships due to their behaviors.
Psychotic disorders are characterized by severe disturbances or abnormalities in thinking processes or perception of reality. The symptoms must be severe enough to cause significant difficulty in functioning within the community at large. In addition, there must be evidence of two (or more) of the following: delusions, hallucinations, intermittent inability to function normally, excessive involvement in risky activities, or apparent need for care or support from others.
Bipolar disorder is a condition in which an individual's mood swings between extremes of depression and mania. Those suffering from this illness may experience periods when they feel depressed for no apparent reason, avoid social interactions, and suffer from loss of interest in usually enjoyable activities. They may also have periods of extreme energy and pleasure along with doubts about themselves and their ability to cope with life's challenges. Finally, they may have thoughts about committing suicide or harming others.
Addiction is a chronic disease that affects people of all races, religions, and socioeconomic groups.
The phrase "personality disorder" indicates that something is wrong with someone's personality. However, the term "personality disorder" merely refers to a diagnostic group of mental diseases distinguished by a persistent, rigid, and maladaptive style of connecting to the environment. This type of disorder does not involve any apparent physical problem or dysfunction of the brain.
There are two main types of personality disorders: neurotic and psychotic. Both types can be further divided into subtypes. For example, one form of psychosis called paranoid schizophrenia involves false beliefs about others' motives or intentions. Another form called obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) involves obsessional thoughts and rituals that cause significant personal distress or interfere with social functioning.
People with personality disorders often have problems forming close relationships due to their behaviors. However, even when they do have friends, these people are often unaware of how their behaviors affect others. In addition, they may believe that they are entitled to certain behaviors (such as not being responsible for their mistakes) or that other people should behave in a particular way toward them.
Personality disorders can be hard to diagnose because they can look like many other conditions or problems such as anxiety, depression, addiction, or autism. There are also no clear boundaries between different types of personalities disorders.
As a way of being and engaging with the environment and others, people with PDs carry damaging habits of thinking, feeling, and acting. Personality characteristics must be rigid, maladaptive, and produce functional impairment or subjective suffering in order to be recognized as a personality disorder.
People with PDs often use their disorders to avoid dealing with more basic issues that arise from living in complex social groups. For example, if someone is rejected by one friend, they may simply stop talking to that person. If someone else rejects them, they may start using drugs or drinking too much alcohol. At its most extreme, someone may even attempt suicide because of their disorder. However many people with PDs do seek out treatment from therapists or doctors who can help them modify their behaviors and learn more effective ways of coping.
The main goal of treatment for people with PDs is to reduce the severity of their symptoms and improve their functioning in daily life. Treatment may include any or all of the following: behavioral therapy, psychotherapy, medication, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and substance abuse treatment.
People with PDs are at risk for developing other mental illnesses such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, and bipolar disorder. It is important for clinicians to diagnose these other conditions so that appropriate treatments can be provided.
What do psychologists refer to as illnesses that are unique to one or more societies? Syndromes that are culture-bound include those associated with:
Famine - where there is a lack of food. This can occur naturally or because of conflict. Famine leads to poor health and increased mortality rates from diseases such as diarrhea, malaria, and tuberculosis (TB). It also increases the probability of people suffering mental problems due to lack of food, shelter, and security.
Poverty - where someone has nothing sufficient to meet their needs and those of their family. This could be due to loss of employment and inability to find new work, or because all the working members of the family need to go out to look for work.
War - which includes violence between groups who believe they have a right to exist and take action about it. War can be classified into three main types: civil wars, international conflicts, and tribal wars.
Depression - which is a common term for feelings of sadness and loss that can affect people differently depending on their situation. Depression can be diagnosed when these feelings are accompanied by other symptoms such as changes in appetite, sleep patterns, concentration abilities, and physical activity.