Between 1893 and 1988, Henry Murray (1938) created the psychogenic wants hypothesis to better understand human psychology (refer Figure 1). The theory included three dimensions: one for power (nPow), one for affiliation (nAff), and one for achievement (nAff). These three dimensions explain most of our psychological differences across the world. For example, men tend to want power more than women do, while women tend to want affiliation more than men do.
Murray also suggested that people develop psychoses if they don't get their need for power, for example, if they are successful before age 25. They may feel inadequate or insecure, and this can lead them to seek power over others or change their environment in order to feel important.
Finally, he said that people who don't get enough power over their environment might develop depression.
In 1990, Edward Zigler and Sandra Gould added two more dimensions to Murray's model: safety and self-direction. They argued that people need safety to protect themselves from harm and security to know what will happen next. If these needs are not met, someone may feel anxious or insecure. In addition, they claimed that people need freedom to make their own choices and be responsible for their actions. If this need is not met, someone may feel constrained or powerless.
Need theory, often known as the Three Needs Theory, is a motivational model created by psychologist David McClelland that aims to explain how the needs for accomplishment, affiliation, and power influence people's behaviour in a management setting. The theory was developed based on research conducted with British managers.
McClelland believed that all people have three basic needs: the need for achievement, the need for affiliation, and the need for power. An individual's need for achievement is said to be satisfied when she performs an action that will help her achieve something important or significant. The need for affiliation refers to the desire to be involved with and connected to others. Individuals who lack satisfaction of this need may feel isolated from others their own age and might seek out relationships with adults more than other teenagers. The need for power is the desire to control others' actions and behaviors. People who lack satisfaction of this need may try to assert their independence from others by refusing requests or taking matters into their own hands.
In his theory, McClelland proposed that individuals will always seek to satisfy one of these needs over another. For example, someone who desires recognition and respect from others would likely want to meet the need for affiliation.
David McClelland, a psychologist, created the Acquired Needs Theory. He claimed that an individual's wants are the outcome of life experience. Leaders may encourage their employees by recognizing their specific requirements and creating strategies to facilitate their acquisition. Needs can be divided into two categories: mandatory and desirable.
Mandatory needs are essential for living a full life. For example, when you're homeless, having a place to sleep is necessary for survival. Meeting your daily food requirement is also important. Eating disorders are also seen as mandatory needs because without them, a person would likely die. Desirable needs are those that give individuals pleasure or satisfaction. For example, listening to music while you work out is a form of entertainment. Trying new foods is also entertaining. Enjoying life experiences helps people stay positive and keep depression at bay.
Needs can be acquired in many ways. For example, someone may need food to survive, so getting employment that provides enough money to buy food is necessary. Someone else may want more leisure time, so taking on a job that allows him or her to work fewer hours is desirable. Needs can also be acquired through interaction with other people. For example, if someone lacks friends, then making new friends is necessary. This could include joining a club or class at school or work, or even just going to social events in an effort to meet new people.
Rather of the two categories outlined in Herzberg's theory, psychologist David McClelland's acquired-needs theory divides employee needs into three. These three categories are as follows: accomplishment, association, and power.
Employees need to be satisfied with their work when there is no advancement possible or desirable. This need is called "accomplishment." Employees also need to feel they are a part of something important—that their contributions are appreciated. This need is called "association." Finally, employees need to feel that they have enough power over their workplace that they can get things done without being interfered with. This need is called "power."
It should be noted that although these needs are listed in order of importance, they do not have to be met in that order. For example, an employee may need to feel like he or she is important before he or she may need to satisfy the need for accomplishment.
Acquired needs theory explains why some people remain employees even though they are given opportunities to advance themselves at their workplaces. It does this by explaining that employees will always need to be satisfied with their work, they will always need to feel like they are a part of something important, and they will always need to feel like they have enough power over their workplace that they can get things done.